We use cookies to improve your experience of our website. Privacy Policy

Skip to main content

Prof Martin Knight

Martin KnightBEng, MSc, PhD

Professor of Mechanobiology /
Co-Director of the CPM (Director of the QM+Emulate Organs-on-chips Centre)

School of Engineering and Materials Science
Queen Mary University of London
+44 (0)20 7882 8868

ORCiD Google Scholar LinkedIn


organ-on-a-chip, osteoarthritis, cancer, mechanobiology, primary cilia


I am a bioengineer interested in developing and using organ-on-a-chip and other in vitro model systems to study human health and disease. Much of my work examines role of mechanobiology and how this can be incorporated into in vitro models to more accurately prediction in vivo behaviour. This includes work on osteoarthritis, inflammation and cancer. I am also particularly interested in using in vitro models to examine the role of primary cilia in disease processes and the development of potential drug treatment that target cilia. I am a co-Director of both the UK Organ-on-a-chip Network and the Queen Mary & Emulate Organs-on-Chips Centre. The latter provides access for researchers from across Europe to state-of-the-art organ-chip technology for fundamental research and drug development. The Emulate Centre also provides validated organ-chip models which include kidney, intestine, liver, alveoli and airway.

Publications of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models



Torres-Pérez JV, Naeem H, Thompson CL, Knight MM and Novak P (2020). Nanoscale mapping reveals functional differences in ion channels populating the membrane of primary cilia. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry  vol. 54, (1) 15-26. 10.33594/000000202
Fu S, Meng H, Freer F, Kwon J, Shelton JC and Knight MM (2020). Sub-toxic levels of Co2+ are anti-inflammatory and protect cartilage from degradation caused by IL-1β. Clinical Biomechanics  10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2019.12.006


Walker RV, Keynton JL, Grimes DT, Sreekumar V, Williams DJ, Esapa C, Wu D, Knight MM and Norris DP (2019). Ciliary exclusion of Polycystin-2 promotes kidney cystogenesis in an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease model. Nature Communications  vol. 10, (1) 10.1038/s41467-019-12067-y
Inamdar SR, Barbieri E, Terrill NJ, Knight MM and Gupta HS (2019). Proteoglycan degradation mimics static compression by altering the natural gradients in fibrillar organisation in cartilage. Elsevier  Acta Biomaterialia  vol. 97, 437-450. 10.1016/j.actbio.2019.07.055
Fu S, Thompson CL, Ali A, Wang W, Chapple JP, Mitchison HM, Beales PL, Wann AKT and Knight MM (2019). Mechanical loading inhibits cartilage inflammatory signalling via an HDAC6 and IFT-dependent mechanism regulating primary cilia elongation. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage  vol. 27, (7) 1064-1074. 10.1016/j.joca.2019.03.003
Delaine-Smith R, Wright N, Hanley C, Hanwell R, Bhome R, Bullock M, Drifka C, Eliceiri K, Thomas G, Knight M, Mirnezami A and Peake N (2019). Transglutaminase-2 Mediates the Biomechanical Properties of the Colorectal Cancer Tissue Microenvironment that Contribute to Disease Progression. Mdpi Ag  Cancers  10.3390/cancers11050701
Harris C, THORPE SD, Rushwan S, Wang W, THOMPSON C, Peacock J, KNIGHT M, Gooptu B and Greenough A (2019). An in vitro investigation of the inflammatory response to the strain amplitudes which occur during high frequency oscillation ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation. Elsevier  Journal of Biomechanics  10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.03.024
OToole SM, Watson DS, Novoselova TV, Romano LEL, King PJ, Bradshaw TY, Thompson CL, Knight MM, Sharp TV, Barnes MR, Srirangalingam U, Drake WM and Chapple JP (2019). Oncometabolite induced primary cilia loss in pheochromocytoma. Endocrine-Related Cancer  vol. 26, (1) 165-180. 10.1530/ERC-18-0134


Rowson DT, Shelton JC, Screen HRC and Knight MM (2018). Mechanical loading induces primary cilia disassembly in tendon cells via TGFβ and HDAC6. Scientific Reports  vol. 8, (1) 10.1038/s41598-018-29502-7
Xu J, Nyga A, Li W, Zhang X, Gavara N, Knight MM and Shelton JC (2018). Cobalt ions stimulate a fibrotic response through matrix remodelling, fibroblast contraction and release of pro-fibrotic signals from macrophages. European Cells and Materials  vol. 36, 142-155. 10.22203/eCM.v036a11
Kenny FN, Drymoussi Z, Delaine-Smith R, Kao AP, Laly AC, Knight MM, Philpott MP and Connelly JT (2018). Tissue stiffening promotes keratinocyte proliferation through activation of epidermal growth factor signaling. Journal of Cell Science  vol. 131, (10) 10.1242/jcs.215780
Xu J, Yang J, Nyga A, Ehteramyan M, Moraga A, Wu Y, Zeng L, Knight MM and Shelton JC (2018). Cobalt (II) ions and nanoparticles induce macrophage retention by ROS-mediated down-regulation of RhoA expression. Acta Biomater  vol. 72, 434-446. 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.03.054


Pearce OMT, Delaine-Smith R, Maniati E, Nichols S, Wang J, Böhm S, Rajeeve V, Ullah D, Chakravarty P, Jones RR, Montfort A, Dowe T, Gribben J, Jones JL, Kocher HM, Serody JS, Vincent BG, Connelly J, Brenton JD, Chelala C, Cutillas PR, Lockley M, Bessant C, Knight M and Balkwill FR (2017). Deconstruction of a metastatic tumor microenvironment reveals a common matrix response in human cancers. Cancer Discov  10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-0284
Gambassi S, Geminiani M, Thorpe SD, Bernardini G, Millucci L, Braconi D, Orlandini M, Thompson CL, Petricci E, Manetti F, Taddei M, Knight MM and Santucci A (2017). Smoothened-antagonists reverse homogentisic acid-induced alterations of Hedgehog signaling and primary cilium length in alkaptonuria. Journal of Cellular Physiology  vol. 232, (11) 3103-3111. 10.1002/jcp.25761
Thompson CL, Plant JC, Wann AK, Bishop CL, Novak P, Mitchison HM, Beales PL, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2017). Chondrocyte expansion is associated with loss of primary cilia and disrupted hedgehog signalling. Eur Cell Mater  vol. 34, 128-141. 10.22203/eCM.v034a09
Inamdar SR, Knight DP, Terrill NJ, Karunaratne A, Cacho-Nerin F, Knight MM and Gupta HS (2017). The Secret Life of Collagen: Temporal Changes in Nanoscale Fibrillar Pre-Strain and Molecular Organization During Physiological Loading of Cartilage. Acs Nano  10.1021/acsnano.7b00563
Zhang J, Dalbay MT, Luo X, Vrij E, Barbieri D, Moroni L, de Bruijn JD, van Blitterswijk CA, Chapple JP, Knight MM and Yuan H (2017). Topography of calcium phosphate ceramics regulates primary cilia length and TGF receptor recruitment associated with osteogenesis. Acta Biomater  vol. 57, 487-497. 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.04.004
THORPE SD, Gambassi S, Thompson CL, Chandrakumar C, Santucci A and Knight MM (2017). Reduced Primary Cilia Length and Altered Arl13b Expression Are Associated with Deregulated Chondrocyte Hedgehog Signalling in Alkaptonuria. John Wiley & Sons Inc.  Journal of Cellular Physiology  10.1002/jcp.25839


Delaine-Smith RM, Burney S, Balkwill FR and Knight MM (2016). Experimental validation of a flat punch indentation methodology calibrated against unconfined compression tests for determination of soft tissue biomechanics. Elsevier  Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials  vol. 60, 401-415. 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.02.019
Sliogeryte K, Botto L, Lee DA and Knight MM (2016). Chondrocyte dedifferentiation increases cell stiffness by strengthening membrane-actin adhesion. Elsevier  Osteoarthritis and Cartilage  vol. 24, (5) 912-920. 10.1016/j.joca.2015.12.007
Rowson D, Knight MM and Screen HRC (2016). Zonal variation in primary cilia elongation correlates with localized biomechanical degradation in stress deprived tendon. J Orthop Res  vol. 34, (12) 2146-2153. 10.1002/jor.23229
KNIGHT MM, wang W, wang Z, wann A, thompson C and hassen A (2016). IFT88 influences chondrocyte actin organization and biomechanics. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage  10.1016/j.joca.2015.10.003
KNIGHT MM, Thompson CL, Wiles A and Poole CA (2016). Lithium chloride modulates chondrocyte primary cilia and inhibits hedgehog signalling. Federation of American Society of Experimental Biology (Faseb)  The Faseb Journal  10.1096/fj.15-274944
Sliogeryte K, Thorpe SD, Wang Z, Thompson CL, Gavara N and Knight MM (2016). Differential effects of LifeAct-GFP and actin-GFP on cell mechanics assessed using micropipette aspiration. Elsevier  Journal of Biomechanics  vol. 49, (2) 310-317. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.12.034


Thompson CL, Patel R, Kelly T-AN, Wann AKT, Hung CT, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2015). Hedgehog signalling does not stimulate cartilage catabolism and is inhibited by Interleukin-1β. Arthritis Research & Therapy  vol. 17, (1) 10.1186/s13075-015-0891-z
Tan AR, VandenBerg CD, Attur M, Abramson SB, Knight MM, Bulinski JC, Ateshian GA, Cook JL and Hung CT (2015). Cytokine preconditioning of engineered cartilage provides protection against interleukin-1 insult. Arthritis Res Ther  vol. 17, 361-361. 10.1186/s13075-015-0876-y
Thompson CL, Poole CA and Knight MM (2015). Lithium chloride modulates chondrocyte primary cilia and inhibits Hedgehog signaling. Federation of American Society of Experimental Biology  The Faseb Journal  vol. 100, (4) A39-A40. 10.1096/fj.15-274944
KNIGHT MM, Thompson CL, Yasmin H, Varone A, Wiles A and Poole CA (2015). Lithium chloride prevents interleukin- 1β induced cartilage degradation and loss of mechanical properties. Wiley: 12 Months  Journal of Orthopaedic Research  10.1002/jor.22913
Wang Z, Irianto J, Kazun S, Wang W and Knight MM (2015). The rate of hypo-osmotic challenge influences regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and mechanical properties of articular chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage  vol. 23, (2) 289-299. 10.1016/j.joca.2014.11.003
Dalbay MT, Thorpe SD, Connelly JT, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2015). Adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs is mediated by recruitment of IGF-1r onto the primary cilium associated with cilia elongation. Stem Cells  vol. 33, (6) 1952-1961. 10.1002/stem.1975
Chen J, Bader DL, Lee DA and Knight MM (2015). FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of MECHANICAL DEFORMATION of CHONDROCYTE to 2D SUBSTRATE and 3D SCAFFOLD. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology  vol. 15, (5) 10.1142/S0219519415500773


Wann AKT, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2014). The primary cilium influences interleukin-1β-induced NFκB signalling by regulating IKK activity. Cell Signal  vol. 26, (8) 1735-1742. 10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.04.004
Shaheen T, Edirisinghe T, Gabriel M, Bourdoumis A, Buchholz N and Knight M (2014). In vitro encrustation of a semi-permanent polymer-covered nitinol ureter stent: an artificial urine model. Urolithiasis  vol. 42, (3) 203-207. 10.1007/s00240-014-0652-5
Irianto J, Lee DA and Knight MM (2014). Quantification of chromatin condensation level by image processing. Med Eng Phys  vol. 36, (3) 412-417. 10.1016/j.medengphy.2013.09.006
Thompson CL, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2014). Primary cilia disassembly down-regulates mechanosensitive hedgehog signalling: a feedback mechanism controlling ADAMTS-5 expression in chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage  vol. 22, (3) 490-498. 10.1016/j.joca.2013.12.016
Irianto J, Ramaswamy G, Serra R and Knight MM (2014). Depletion of chondrocyte primary cilia reduces the compressive modulus of articular cartilage. J Biomech  vol. 47, (2) 579-582. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.11.040
Sliogeryte K, Thorpe SD, Lee DA, Botto L and Knight MM (2014). Stem cell differentiation increases membrane-actin adhesion regulating cell blebability, migration and mechanics. Scientific Reports  vol. 4, 10.1038/srep07307


McMurray RJ, Wann AKT, Thompson CL, Connelly JT and Knight MM (2013). Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells. Sci Rep  vol. 3, 10.1038/srep03545
Wann AK, Thompson CL, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2013). Interleukin-1β sequesters hypoxia inducible factor 2α to the primary cilium. Cilia  vol. 2, (1) 10.1186/2046-2530-2-17
Shafat M, Rajakumar K, Syme H, Buchholz N and Knight MM (2013). Stent encrustation in feline and human artificial urine: does the low molecular weight composition account for the difference? Urolithiasis  vol. 41, (6) 481-486. 10.1007/s00240-013-0608-1
Hernandez-Hernandez V, Pravincumar P, Diaz-Font A, May-Simera H, Jenkins D, Knight M and Beales PL (2013). Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins control the cilia length through regulation of actin polymerization. Human Molecular Genetics  vol. 22, (19) 3858-3868. 10.1093/hmg/ddt241
Irianto J, Swift J, Martins RP, McPhail GD, Knight MM, Discher DE and Lee DA (2013). Osmotic challenge drives rapid and reversible chromatin condensation in chondrocytes. Biophys J  vol. 104, (4) 759-769. 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.01.006
Hosny NA, Song M, Connelly JT, Ameer-Beg S, Knight MM and Wheeler AP (2013). Super-resolution imaging strategies for cell biologists using a spinning disk microscope. Plos One  vol. 8, (10) 10.1371/journal.pone.0074604
Hosny NA, Song M, Connelly JT, Ameer-Beg S, Knight MM and Wheeler AP (2013). Correction: Super-Resolution Imaging Strategies for Cell Biologists Using a Spinning Disk Microscope. Plos One  vol. 8, (12) 10.1371/annotation/d96769fb-4e7d-4f47-98cf-443447c1471e
Hosny NA, Song M, Knight MM and Wheeler AP (2013). Super-resolution imaging strategies for Cell Biologists using a spinning disk microscope. Molecular Biology of The Cell  vol. 24,


Wheeler APS, Morad S, Buchholz N and Knight MM (2012). The Shape of the Urine Stream - From Biophysics to Diagnostics. Plos One  vol. 7, (10) 10.1371/journal.pone.0047133
Chen J, Irianto J, Inamdar S, Pravincumar P, Lee DA, Bader DL and Knight MM (2012). Cell mechanics, structure, and function are regulated by the stiffness of the three-dimensional microenvironment. Biophys J  vol. 103, (6) 1188-1197. 10.1016/j.bpj.2012.07.054
Prodromou NV, Thompson CL, Osborn DPS, Cogger KF, Ashworth R, Knight MM, Beales PL and Chapple JP (2012). Heat shock induces rapid resorption of primary cilia. J Cell Sci  vol. 125, (Pt 18) 4297-4305. 10.1242/jcs.100545
Pravincumar P, Bader DL and Knight MM (2012). Viscoelastic Cell Mechanics and Actin Remodelling Are Dependent on the Rate of Applied Pressure. Plos One  vol. 7, (9) 10.1371/journal.pone.0043938
Wann AKT and Knight MM (2012). Primary cilia elongation in response to interleukin-1 mediates the inflammatory response. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences  vol. 69, (17) 2967-2977. 10.1007/s00018-012-0980-y
Bonzani IC, Campbell JJ, Knight MM, Williams A, Lee DA, Bader DL and Stevens MM (2012). Dynamic compressive strain influences chondrogenic gene expression in human periosteal cells: a case study. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater  vol. 11, 72-81. 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2011.06.015
Wann AKT, Zuo N, Haycraft CJ, Jensen CG, Poole CA, McGlashan SR and Knight MM (2012). Primary cilia mediate mechanotransduction through control of ATP-induced Ca2+ signaling in compressed chondrocytes. Faseb Journal  vol. 26, (4) 1663-1671. 10.1096/fj.11-193649
Maeda E, Ye S, Wang W, Bader DL, Knight MM and Lee DA (2012). Gap junction permeability between tenocytes within tendon fascicles is suppressed by tensile loading. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology  vol. 11, (3-4) 439-447. 10.1007/s10237-011-0323-1
Gladman SJ, Huang W, Lim SN, Dyall SC, Boddy S, Kang JX, Knight MM, Priestley JV and Michael-Titus AT (2012). Improved outcome after peripheral nerve injury in mice with increased levels of endogenous Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Neuroscience  vol. 32, (2) 563-571. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3371-11.2012
Hosny NA, Lee DA and Knight MM (2012). Single photon counting fluorescence lifetime detection of pericellular oxygen concentrations. J Biomed Opt  vol. 17, (1) 10.1117/1.JBO.17.1.016007
Wann AKT, Thompson C and Knight MM (2012). The role of the primary cilium in chondrocyte response to mechanical loading. Mechanically Gated Channels and Their Regulation  10.1007/978-94-007-5073-9_15


Gladman S, Lim SN, Dyall S, Knight MM, Priestley JV and Michael-Titus AT (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids and acute neurological trauma: A perspective on clinical translation. Ocl - Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides  vol. 18, (6) 317-323. 10.1684/ocl.2011.0421
Maeda E, Ye S, Wang W, Bader DL, Knight MM and Lee DA (2011). Gap junction permeability between tenocytes within tendon fascicles is suppressed by tensile loading. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology  1-9. 10.1007/s10237-011-0323-1
Lee DA, Knight MM, Campbell JJ and Bader DL (2011). Stem cell mechanobiology. J Cell Biochem  vol. 112, (1) 1-9. 10.1002/jcb.22758


Gladman SJ, Ward RE, Michael-Titus AT, Knight MM and Priestley JV (2010). The effect of mechanical strain or hypoxia on cell death in subpopulations of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro. Neuroscience  vol. 171, (2) 577-587. 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.07.009
Vaughan NM, Grainger J, Bader DL and Knight MM (2010). The potential of pulsed low intensity ultrasound to stimulate chondrocytes matrix synthesis in agarose and monolayer cultures. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing  vol. 48, (12) 1215-1222. 10.1007/s11517-010-0681-3
Wann AKT, Mistry J, Blain EJ, Michael-Titus AT and Knight MM (2010). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce interleukin-1β-mediated cartilage degradation. Arthritis Research and Therapy  vol. 12, (6) 10.1186/ar3183
Heywood HK, Knight MM and Lee DA (2010). Both superficial and deep zone articular chondrocyte subpopulations exhibit the crabtree effect but have different basal oxygen consumption rates. Journal of Cellular Physiology  vol. 223, (3) 630-639. 10.1002/jcp.22061
Garcia M and Knight MM (2010). Cyclic loading opens hemichannels to release ATP as part of a chondrocyte mechanotransduction pathway. Journal of Orthopaedic Research  vol. 28, (4) 510-515. 10.1002/jor.21025
Bader DL and Knight MM (2010). Measuring the biomechanical properties of cartilage cells. 10.1533/9781845697792.1.106
McGlashan SR, Knight MM, Chowdhury TT, Joshi P, Jensen CG, Kennedy S and Poole CA (2010). Mechanical loading modulates chondrocyte primary cilia incidence and length. Cell Biology International  vol. 34, (5) 441-446. 10.1042/CBI20090094


Knight MM, Mcglashan SR, Garcia M, Jensen CG and Poole CA (2009). Articular chondrocytes express connexin 43 hemichannels and P2 receptors - A putative mechanoreceptor complex involving the primary cilium? Journal of Anatomy  vol. 214, (2) 275-283. 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.01021.x


Bader DL and Knight MM (2008). Biomechanical analysis of structural deformation in living cells. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing  vol. 46, (10) 951-963. 10.1007/s11517-008-0381-4


Campbell JJ and Knight MM (2007). An improved confocal FRAP technique for the measurement of long-term actin dynamics in individual stress fibers. Microscopy Research and Technique  vol. 70, (12) 1034-1040. 10.1002/jemt.20513
Campbell JJ, Blain EJ, Chowdhury TT and Knight MM (2007). Loading alters actin dynamics and up-regulates cofilin gene expression in chondrocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications  vol. 361, (2) 329-334. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.06.185
KNIGHT MM, Chowdhury TT, Campbell JJ and Blain EJ (2007). Loading alters actin dynamics and up-regulates cofilin gene expression in chondrocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications  vol. 361, (21) 329-334. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.06.185


Chowdhury TT and Knight MM (2006). Purinergic pathway suppresses the release of NO and stimulates proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocyte/agarose constructs subjected to dynamic compression. Journal of Cellular Physiology  vol. 209, (3) 845-853. 10.1002/jcp.20768
Pingguan-Murphy B, El-Azzeh M, Bader DL and Knight MM (2006). Cyclic compression of chondrocytes modulates a purinergic calcium signalling pathway in a strain rate- and frequency-dependent manner. Journal of Cellular Physiology  vol. 209, (2) 389-397. 10.1002/jcp.20747
Hakimi O, Knight DP, Knight MM, Grahn MF and Vadgama P (2006). Ultrastructure of insect and spider cocoon silks. Biomacromolecules  vol. 7, (10) 2901-2908. 10.1021/bm060528h
Bomzon Z, Knight MM, Bader DL and Kimmel E (2006). Mitochondrial dynamics in chondrocytes and their connection to the mechanical properties of the cytoplasm. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering  vol. 128, (5) 674-679. 10.1115/1.2246239
Ohashi T, Hagiwara M, Bader DL and Knight MM (2006). Intracellular mechanics and mechanotransduction associated with chondrocyte deformation during pipette aspiration. Biorheology  vol. 43, (3-4) 201-214.
Knight MM, Bomzon Z, Kimmel E, Sharma AM, Lee DA and Bader DL (2006). Chondrocyte deformation induces mitochondrial distortion and heterogeneous intracellular strain fields. Biomech Model Mechan  vol. 5, (2-3) 180-191. 10.1007/s10237-006-0020-7
Knight MM, Toyoda T, Lee DA and Bader DL (2006). Mechanical compression and hydrostatic pressure induce reversible changes in actin cytoskeletal organisation in chondrocytes in agarose. J Biomech  vol. 39, (8) 1547-1551. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.04.006


Pingguan-Murphy B, Lee DA, Bader DL and Knight MM (2005). Activation of chondrocytes calcium signalling by dynamic compression is independent of number of cycles. Arch Biochem Biophys  vol. 444, (1) 45-51. 10.1016/


Sawae Y, Shelton JC, Bader DL and Knight MM (2004). Confocal analysis of local and cellular strains in chondrocyte-agarose constructs subjected to mechanical shear. Ann Biomed Eng  vol. 32, (6) 860-870. 10.1023/b:abme.0000030261.38396.c0
Lee DA and Knight MM (2004). Mechanical loading of chondrocytes embedded in 3D constructs: in vitro methods for assessment of morphological and metabolic response to compressive strain. Methods Mol Med  vol. 100, 307-324. 10.1385/1-59259-810-2:307
Holloway I, Kayser M, Lee DA, Bader DL, Bentley G and Knight MM (2004). Increased presence of cells with multiple elongated processes in osteoarthritic femoral head cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage  vol. 12, (1) 17-24. 10.1016/j.joca.2003.09.001


Knight MM, Roberts SR, Lee DA and Bader DL (2003). Live cell imaging using confocal microscopy induces intracellular calcium transients and cell death. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol  vol. 284, (4) C1083-C1089. 10.1152/ajpcell.00276.2002
Bader DL, SHELTON JC, Knight MM and Sawae Y (2003). Confocal Analysis of Local and Cellular Strains in Chondrocyte - Agarose Constructs Subjected to Shear. J Biochemical Engineering Asme  10.1023/B:ABME.0000030261.38396.c0


Knight MM, van de Breevaart Bravenboer J, Lee DA, van Osch GJVM, Weinans H and Bader DL (2002). Cell and nucleus deformation in compressed chondrocyte-alginate constructs: temporal changes and calculation of cell modulus. Biochim Biophys Acta  vol. 1570, (1) 1-8. 10.1016/s0304-4165(02)00144-7


Knight MM, Ross JM, Sherwin AF, Lee DA, Bader DL and Poole CA (2001). Chondrocyte deformation within mechanically and enzymatically extracted chondrons compressed in agarose. Biochim Biophys Acta  vol. 1526, (2) 141-146. 10.1016/s0304-4165(01)00118-0
Knight MM, Idowu BD, Lee DA and Bader DL (2001). Temporal changes in cytoskeletal organisation within isolated chondrocytes quantified using a novel image analysis technique. Med Biol Eng Comput  vol. 39, (3) 397-404. 10.1007/BF02345297
Roberts SR, Knight MM, Lee DA and Bader DL (2001). Mechanical compression influences intracellular Ca2+ signaling in chondrocytes seeded in agarose constructs. J Appl Physiol (1985)  vol. 90, (4) 1385-1391. 10.1152/jappl.2001.90.4.1385
Bouten CV, Knight MM, Lee DA and Bade DL (2001). Compressive deformation and damage of muscle cell subpopulations in a model system. Ann Biomed Eng  vol. 29, (2) 153-163. 10.1114/1.1349698


Idowu BD, Knight MM, Bader DL and Lee DA (2000). Confocal analysis of cytoskeletal organisation within isolated chondrocyte sub-populations cultured in agarose. Histochem J  vol. 32, (3) 165-174. 10.1023/a:1004095207330
Knight DP, KNIGHT MM and Vollrath F (2000). Beta transition and stress-induced phase separation in the spinning of spider dragline silk. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules  vol. 27, (3) 205-210. 10.1016/s0141-8130(00)00124-0
Lee DA, Knight MM, Bolton JF, Idowu BD, Kayser MV and Bader DL (2000). Chondrocyte deformation within compressed agarose constructs at the cellular and sub-cellular levels. J Biomech  vol. 33, (1) 81-95. 10.1016/s0021-9290(99)00160-8


Hing K and Knight M (1998). Prize-winning peeks at the microscopic world.
Knight MM, Ghori SA, Lee DA and Bader DL (1998). Measurement of the deformation of isolated chondrocytes in agarose subjected to cyclic compression. Med Eng Phys  vol. 20, (9) 684-688. 10.1016/s1350-4533(98)00080-0
(1998). Response of chondrocyte subpopulations cultured within unloaded and loaded agarose. J Orthop Res  vol. 16, (6) 726-733. 10.1002/jor.1100160615
Knight MM, Lee DA and Bader DL (1998). The influence of elaborated pericellular matrix on the deformation of isolated articular chondrocytes cultured in agarose. Biochim Biophys Acta  vol. 1405, (1-3) 67-77. 10.1016/s0167-4889(98)00102-5


Grants of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models
Queen Mary+Emulate Organs-on-chips Centre
Knight MM
£525,375 Emulate Inc and QMUL (20-09-2019 - 19-09-2023)
MICA: Organ-on-a-chip models for safety testing of regenerative medicine products
Knight MM
£504,557 Medical Research Council (24-08-2020 - 23-08-2023)
Organ-on-a-chip model of breast cancer bone metastases
Knight MM
£269,601 Cancer Research UK (04-01-2021 - 01-07-2023)
Drug repurposing for treatment of cilia-related pathologies
Knight MM
£50,000 Queen Mary Innovations: Proof of Concept Grant (01-04-2021 - 28-02-2022)
Organ-on-a-chip Technologies
Screen HRC, Bull AMJ, Haj AJE, Knight MM, Carr AJ, Gunn JPG, Dalby MJ and Workman P
£479,338 Medical Research Council (31-07-2018 - 30-07-2021)

The mechanics of the collagen fibrillar network in ageing cartilage
Gupta HS and Knight MM
£369,874 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (30-09-2017 - 29-09-2020)
META-DORM (Marie Skodowska-Curie Global Research Fellowship)
Knight MM
£137,844 European Research Council (01-01-2018 - 30-08-2020)
Osteoarthritis may be treated as an environmental ciliopathy
Knight MM
£365,598 Medical Research Council (01-09-2014 - 30-03-2020)
The chondrocyte primary cilium - a purinergic mechanoreceptor?
Knight MM, Jensen CG, Mcglashan SR and Poole CA
£231,845 Wellcome Trust (02-02-2009 - 01-02-2013)