Dr Adrian Biddle

Adrian Biddle

DHT Lecturer in Animal Replacement Science
CPM organ-on-a-chip symposia organiser,
CPM Theme lead for Cancer Models

Centre for Cell Biology & Cutaneous Research, Blizard Institute
Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London
ORCID Google Scholar LinkedIn X


cancer stem cells, tumour metastasis, 3D tumour invasion, metastasis on a chip, organ-on-a-chip, machine learning

Cancer Models


Cancer stem cells drive tumour metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will be crucial if we are to deliver better treatments for cancer, and we model this process using human cancer cell lines in advanced 3D invasion and microfluidic metastasis systems. We also use human tissue archives, which provide a wealth of information on tumour behaviour in the human body, including data on the clinical course of disease. We have developed new ways of obtaining greater information from these tumour specimens, including simultaneous measurement of multiple cancer stem cell markers and a machine learning approach for prognostic prediction.


Publications of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models


Scemama A, Lunetto S, Tailor A, Di Cio S, Dibble M, Gautrot J and Biddle A (2024). Development of an in vitro microfluidic model to study the role of microenvironmental cells in oral cancer metastasis. Faculty of 1000  F1000research  vol. 12, 10.12688/f1000research.131810.2


Youssef G, Gammon L, Ambler L, Lunetto S, Scemama A, Cottom H, Piper K, Mackenzie IC, Philpott MP and Biddle A (2023). Disseminating cells in human oral tumours possess an EMT cancer stem cell marker profile that is predictive of metastasis in image-based machine learning. Elife  Elife  vol. 12, 10.7554/elife.90298
Samain R, Maiques O, Monger J, Lam H, Candido J, George S, Ferrari N, KohIhammer L, Lunetto S, Varela A, Orgaz JL, Vilardell F, Olsina JJ, Matias-Guiu X, Sarker D, Biddle A, Balkwill FR, Eyles J, Wilkinson RW, Kocher HM, Calvo F, Wells CM and Sanz-Moreno V (2023). CD73 controls Myosin II–driven invasion, metastasis, and immunosuppression in amoeboid pancreatic cancer cells. American Association For The Advancement of Science (Aaas)  Science Advances  vol. 9, (42) 10.1126/sciadv.adi0244
Scemama A, Tailor A, Di Cio S, Dibble M, Gautrot J and Biddle A (2023). Development of an in vitro microfluidic model to study the role of microenvironmental cells in oral cancer metastasis. Taylor and Francis  F1000research  vol. 12, 439-439. 10.12688/f1000research.131810.1
Biddle A (2023). In vitro cancer models as an approach to identify targetable developmental phenotypes in cancer stem cells. Springer Nature  In Vitro Models  vol. 2, (3-4) 83-88. 10.1007/s44164-023-00051-2


Biddle A (2022). Organ-on-a-Chip Technologies Network special issue editorial. Springer Nature  In Vitro Models  vol. 1, (6) 397-398. 10.1007/s44164-022-00039-4
Marles H and Biddle A (2022). Cancer stem cell plasticity and its implications in the development of new clinical approaches for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Elsevier  Biochemical Pharmacology  vol. 204, 10.1016/j.bcp.2022.115212
Scemama A, Lunetto S and Biddle A (2022). Highlight: microfluidic devices for cancer metastasis studies. Springer Nature  In Vitro Models  vol. 1, (6) 399-403. 10.1007/s44164-022-00023-y
Sahoo S, Ashraf B, Duddu AS, Biddle A and Jolly MK (2022). Interconnected high-dimensional landscapes of epithelial–mesenchymal plasticity and stemness in cancer. Springer Nature  Clinical & Experimental Metastasis  vol. 39, (2) 279-290. 10.1007/s10585-021-10139-2


Custódio M, Biddle A and Tavassoli M (2020). Portrait of a CAF: The story of cancer-associated fibroblasts in head and neck cancer. Elsevier  Oral Oncology  vol. 110, 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.104972


Jolly MK, Somarelli JA, Sheth M, Biddle A, Tripathi SC, Armstrong AJ, Hanash SM, Bapat SA, Rangarajan A and Levine H (2018). Hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotypes promote metastasis and therapy resistance across carcinomas. Elsevier  Pharmacology & Therapeutics  vol. 194, 161-184. 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.09.007
MACKENZIE IC, Rodrigues MF, Gammon L, RAHMAN M, BIDDLE A and Nunes FD (2018). Effects of Cetuximab and Erlotinib on the behaviour of cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Impact Journals  Oncotarget  10.18632/oncotarget.24416


O’Brien-Ball C and Biddle A (2017). Reprogramming to developmental plasticity in cancer stem cells. Elsevier  Developmental Biology  vol. 430, (2) 266-274. 10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.07.025


BIDDLE A, Gammon L, Liang X, Costea DE and Mackenzie IC (2016). Phenotypic Plasticity Determines Cancer Stem Cell Therapeutic Resistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Elsevier: Creative Commons  Ebiomedicine  10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.01.007


Gemenetzidis E, Gammon L, Biddle A, Emich H and Mackenzie IC (2015). Invasive oral cancer stem cells display resistance to ionising radiation. Impact Journals, Llc  Oncotarget  vol. 6, (41) 43964-43977. 10.18632/oncotarget.6268
Shigeishi H, Biddle A, Gammon L, Rodini CO, Yamasaki M, Seino S, Sugiyama M, Takechi M and Mackenzie IC (2015). Elevation in 5-FU-induced apoptosis in head and neck cancer stem cells by a combination of CDHP and GSK3β inhibitors. J Oral Pathol Med  vol. 44, (3) 201-207. 10.1111/jop.12230
Vig N, Mackenzie IC and Biddle A (2015). Phenotypic plasticity and epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition in the behaviour and therapeutic response of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Wiley  Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine  vol. 44, (9) 649-655. 10.1111/jop.12306


Vig N, Biddle A, Gammon L, Emich H and Mackenzie I (2014). Implications of the Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) Paradigm for OMFS Patients and Surgeons. Elsevier  British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery  vol. 52, (8) 10.1016/j.bjoms.2014.07.068


Shigeishi H, Biddle A, Gammon L, Emich H, Rodini CO, Gemenetzidis E, Fazil B, Sugiyama M, Kamata N and Mackenzie IC (2013). Maintenance of stem cell self-renewal in head and neck cancers requires actions of GSK3β influenced by CD44 and RHAMM. Stem Cells  vol. 31, (10) 2073-2083. 10.1002/stem.1418
Biddle A, Gammon L, Fazil B and Mackenzie IC (2013). CD44 staining of cancer stem-like cells is influenced by down-regulation of CD44 variant isoforms and up-regulation of the standard CD44 isoform in the population of cells that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Plos One  vol. 8, (2) 10.1371/journal.pone.0057314
Gammon L, Biddle A, Heywood HK, Johannessen AC and Mackenzie IC (2013). Sub-sets of cancer stem cells differ intrinsically in their patterns of oxygen metabolism. Plos One  vol. 8, (4) 10.1371/journal.pone.0062493
Hufbauer M, Biddle A, Borgogna C, Gariglio M, Doorbar J, Storey A, Pfister H, Mackenzie I and Akguel B (2013). Expression of Betapapillomavirus Oncogenes Increases the Number of Keratinocytes with Stem Cell-Like Properties. Journal of Virology  vol. 87, (22) 12158-12165. 10.1128/JVI.01510-13


Biddle A and Mackenzie IC (2012). Cancer stem cells and EMT in carcinoma. Cancer Metastasis Rev  10.1007/s10555-012-9345-0
VALORANI MG, Montelatici E, Germani A, Biddle A, D'Alessandro D, Strollo R, Patrizi MP, Lazzari L, Nye E and Otto WR (2012). Pre-culturing human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia increases their adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. Cell Proliferation  vol. 45, (3) 225-238. 10.1111/j.1365-2184.2012.00817


Biddle A, Liang X, Gammon L, Fazil B, Harper LJ, Emich H, Costea DE and Mackenzie IC (2011). Cancer stem cells in squamous cell carcinoma switch between two distinct phenotypes that are preferentially migratory or proliferative. Cancer Res  vol. 71, (15) 5317-5326. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1059
Gammon L, Biddle A, Fazil B, Harper L and Mackenzie IC (2011). Stem cell characteristics of cell sub-populations in cell lines derived from head and neck cancers of Fanconi anemia patients. J Oral Pathol Med  vol. 40, (2) 143-152. 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2010.00972.x


Valorani MG, Germani A, Otto WR, Harper L, Biddle A, Khoo CP, Lin WR, Hawa MI, Tropel P, Patrizi MP, Pozzilli P and Alison MR (2010). Hypoxia increases Sca-1/CD44 co-expression in murine mesenchymal stem cells and enhances their adipogenic differentiation potential. Cell Tissue Res  vol. 341, (1) 111-120. 10.1007/s00441-010-0982-8
Harper LJ, Costea DE, Gammon L, Fazil B, Biddle A and Mackenzie IC (2010). Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance. Bmc Cancer  vol. 10, 10.1186/1471-2407-10-166


Biddle A, Simeoni I and Gurdon JB (2009). Xenopus oocytes reactivate muscle gene transcription in transplanted somatic nuclei independently of myogenic factors. Development  vol. 136, (16) 2695-2703. 10.1242/dev.036327


Dragnev KH, Petty WJ, Shah S, Biddle A, Desai NB, Memoli V, Rigas JR and Dmitrovsky E (2005). Bexarotene and Erlotinib for Aerodigestive Tract Cancer. American Society of Clinical Oncology (Asco)  Journal of Clinical Oncology  vol. 23, (34) 8757-8764. 10.1200/jco.2005.01.9521
Petty WJ, Li N, Biddle A, Bounds R, Nitkin C, Ma Y, Dragnev KH, Freemantle SJ and Dmitrovsky E (2005). A Novel Retinoic Acid Receptor β Isoform and Retinoid Resistance in Lung Carcinogenesis. Oxford University Press (Oup)  Journal of The National Cancer Institute  vol. 97, (22) 1645-1651. 10.1093/jnci/dji371


Petty WJ, Dragnev KH, Memoli VA, Ma Y, Desai NB, Biddle A, Davis TH, Nugent WC, Memoli N, Hamilton M, Iwata KK, Rigas JR and Dmitrovsky E (2004). Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition Represses Cyclin D1 in Aerodigestive Tract Cancers. American Association For Cancer Research (Aacr)  Clinical Cancer Research  vol. 10, (22) 7547-7554. 10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-04-1169


Grants of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models
Identifying and manipulating molecular mechanisms controlling cancer stem cell metastatic potential in a human oral cancer model.
Biddle AJ and Wang J
£679,533 Medical Research Council (02-08-2021 - 01-08-2024)

A 3Rs approach to tumour metastasis: investigating the role of cancer stem cells in metastasis using an in vitro microfluidic model
Biddle AJ, Scemama A and Gautrot JEE
£90,000 National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (01-10-2019 - 30-09-2022)
Development of a molecular biomarker test for metastatic cancer stem cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma
Biddle AJ and Ambler L
£93,000 Oracle Cancer Trust (02-07-2018 - 31-12-2021)
The Animal Replacement Centre of Excellence
Philpott MP, Biddle AJ and Youssef G
£1,000,000 Animal Free Research UK (01-08-2016 - 31-07-2021)