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Prof Steve Greenwald

Steve Greenwald

Professor of Cardiovascular Mechanics

Blizard Institute
School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London
+44 (0)20 3246 0178

www.qmul.ac.uk/blizard/staff/centre-for-cell-biology-and-cutaneous-research...

Research

Interests

In vitro simulation and numerical modelling of the propagation of shear and pressure waves in soft tissue, associated with disturbed vascular flow. Application of this to the detection of arterial stenosis and measurement of arterial stiffness.

Publications of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models

Publications

2020

Wang H, Wang L, Sun N, Yao Y, Hao L, Xu L and Greenwald SE (2020). Quantitative Comparison of the Performance of Piezoresistive, Piezoelectric, Acceleration, and Optical Pulse Wave Sensors. Frontiers in Physiology  vol. 10, 10.3389/fphys.2019.01563

2019

Petkos K, Koutsoftidis S, Guiho T, Degenaar P, Jackson A, Greenwald SE, Brown P, Denison T and Drakakis EM (2019). A high-performance 8 nV/√Hz 8-channel wearable and wireless system for real-time monitoring of bioelectrical signals. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation  vol. 16, (1) 10.1186/s12984-019-0629-2
Qi L, Yu H, Xu L, Mpanda RS and Greenwald SE (2019). Robust heart-rate estimation from facial videos using Project_ICA. Iop Publishing  Physiological Measurement  vol. 40, (8) 10.1088/1361-6579/ab2c9f
Tommasin D, Caenen A, Verhegghe B, Greenwald S and Segers P (2019). Physics of Within-Tissue Wave Propagation Generated by Pulse Propagation in the Carotid Artery. Applied Sciences-Basel  vol. 9, (14) 10.3390/app9142878
Mancini V, Tommasin D, Li Y, Reeves J, Baets R, Greenwald S, Segers P and CARDIS consortium (2019). Detecting carotid stenosis from skin vibrations using Laser Doppler Vibrometry - An in vitro proof-of-concept. Plos One  vol. 14, (6) e0218317-e0218317. 10.1371/journal.pone.0218317

2018

Gutiérrez-Arzapalo PY, Rodríguez-Rodríguez P, Ramiro-Cortijo D, López de Pablo ÁL, López-Giménez MR, Condezo-Hoyos L, Greenwald SE, González MDC and Arribas SM (2018). Role of fetal nutrient restriction and postnatal catch-up growth on structural and mechanical alterations of rat aorta. Journal of Physiology  vol. 596, (23) 5791-5806. 10.1113/JP275030
Zhang Y, Jiang Z, Qi L, Xu L, Sun X, Chu X, Liu Y, Zhang T and Greenwald SE (2018). Evaluation of cardiorespiratory function during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in untreated hypertensive and healthy subjects. Frontiers Media  Frontiers in Physiology  vol. 9, (NOV) 10.3389/fphys.2018.01590
Zhang Y, Qi L, Xu L, Sun X, Liu W, Zhou S, van de Vosse F and Greenwald SE (2018). Effects of exercise modalities on central hemodynamics, arterial stiffness and cardiac function in cardiovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Plos One  vol. 13, (7) 10.1371/journal.pone.0200829
Senaphan K, Sangartit W, Pakdeechote P, Kukongviriyapan V, Pannangpetch P, Thawornchinsombut S, Greenwald SE and Kukongviriyapan U (2018). Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet. European Journal of Nutrition  vol. 57, (1) 219-230. 10.1007/s00394-016-1311-0

2017

Godinho MSC, Thorpe CT, Greenwald SE and Screen HRC (2017). Elastin is Localised to the Interfascicular Matrix of Energy Storing Tendons and Becomes Increasingly Disorganised With Ageing. Scientific Reports  vol. 7, (1) 10.1038/s41598-017-09995-4

2016

Godinho MSC, Screen HRC, Greenwald SE and Thorpe CT (2016). Elastin is more abundant in energy storing tendons and is localised to the tendon interfascicular matrix. International Journal of Experimental Pathology  vol. 97, (6) A3-A4.
Forouhi NG, Menon RK, Sharp SJ, Mannan N, Timms PM, Martineau AR, Rickard AP, Boucher BJ, Chowdhury TA, Griffiths CJ, Greenwald SE, Griffin SJ and Hitman GA (2016). Effects of vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation on glycaemic control and cardiometabolic risk among people at risk of type 2 diabetes: Results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism  vol. 18, (4) 392-400. 10.1111/dom.12625

2015

Brewin MP, Birch MJ, Mehta DJ, Reeves JW, Shaw S, Kruse C, Whiteman JR, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Banks HT and Greenwald SE (2015). Characterisation of Elastic and Acoustic Properties of an Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material. Annals of Biomedical Engineering  vol. 43, (10) 2587-2596. 10.1007/s10439-015-1294-7
Senaphan K, Kukongviriyapan U, Sangartit W, Pakdeechote P, Pannangpetch P, Prachaney P, Greenwald SE and Kukongviriyapan V (2015). Ferulic acid alleviates changes in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. Nutrients  vol. 7, (8) 6446-6464. 10.3390/nu7085283

2014

Sangartit W, Kukongviriyapan U, Donpunha W, Pakdeechote P, Kukongviriyapan V, Surawattanawan P and Greenwald SE (2014). Tetrahydrocurcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Hypertension, Raised Arterial Stiffness and Vascular Remodeling in Mice., Editors: Gupta S. Public Library of Science  Plos One  vol. 9, (12) e114908-e114908. 10.1371/journal.pone.0114908
Boonla O, Kukongviriyapan U, Pakdeechote P, Kukongviriyapan V, Pannangpetch P, Prachaney P and Greenwald SE (2014). Curcumin improves endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in 2K-1C hypertensive rats by raising nitric oxide availability and reducing oxidative stress. Nitric Oxide  vol. 42, 44-53. 10.1016/j.niox.2014.09.001
Gardiner HM, Matsui H, Roughton M, Greenwald SE, Diemert A, Taylor MJO and Hecher K (2014). Cardiac function in 10-year-old twins following different fetal therapies for twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology  vol. 43, (6) 652-657. 10.1002/uog.13279
Banks HT, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Kruse C, Shaw S, Whiteman J, Brewin MP, Greenwald SE and Birch MJ (2014). MODEL VALIDATION FOR A NONINVASIVE ARTERIAL STENOSIS DETECTION PROBLEM. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering  vol. 11, (3) 427-448. 10.3934/mbe.2014.11.427
Banks HT, Birch MJ, Brewin MP, Greenwald SE, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Kruse C, Maischak M, Shaw S and Whiteman JR (2014). High-order space-time finite element schemes for acoustic and viscodynamic wave equations with temporal decoupling. International Journal For Numerical Methods in Engineering  vol. 98, (2) 131-156. 10.1002/nme.4631
Brewin MP, Srodon PD, Greenwald SE and Birch MJ (2014). Carotid atherosclerotic plaque characterisation by measurement of ultrasound sound speed in vitro at high frequency, 20 MHz. Ultrasonics  vol. 54, (2) 428-441. 10.1016/j.ultras.2013.04.015
Louis-Auguste J, Greenwald S, Simuyandi M, Soko R, Banda R and Kelly P (2014). High dose multiple micronutrient supplementation improves villous morphology in environmental enteropathy without HIV enteropathy: results from a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial in Zambian adults. Bmc Gastroenterol  vol. 14, 10.1186/1471-230X-14-15
Shcherbakova DA, Papadacci C, Swillens A, Caenen A, De Bock S, Saey V, Chiers K, Tanter M, Greenwald SE, Pernot M and Segers P (2014). Supersonic shear wave imaging to assess arterial nonlinear behavior and anisotropy: Proof of principle via ex vivo testing of the horse Aorta. Advances in Mechanical Engineering  vol. 2014, 10.1155/2014/272586

2013

Hoonjan B, Dulai R, Ahmed Z, Lucey A, Twycross-Lewis R, Morrissey D and Greenwald SE (2013). Comparing the effect of moderate intensity exercise on arterial stiffness in resistance trained athletes, endurance trained athletes and sedentary controls: A cross-sectional observational study. Artery Research  vol. 7, (3-4) 216-221. 10.1016/j.artres.2013.08.002
Rachev A, Greenwald S and Shazly T (2013). Are Geometrical and Structural Variations Along the Length of the Aorta Governed by a Principle of Optimal Mechanical Operation? Journal of Biomechanical Engineering-Transactions of The Asme  vol. 135, (8) 10.1115/1.4024664
Phababpha S, Kukongviriyapan U, Pakdeechote P, Senggunprai L, Kukongviriyapan V, Settasatian C, Tatsanavivat P, Intharaphet P, Senthong V, Komanasin N, Settasatian N and Greenwald SE (2013). Association of arterial stiffness with single nucleotide polymorphism rs1333049 and metabolic risk factors. Cardiovascular Diabetology  vol. 12, 10.1186/1475-2840-12-93
Banks HT, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Kruse C, Shaw S, Whiteman JR, Brewin MP, Greenwald SE and Birch MJ (2013). Material parameter estimation and hypothesis testing on a 1D viscoelastic stenosis model: Methodology. De Gruyter  Journal of Inverse and III-Posed Problems  vol. 21, (1) 25-57. 10.1515/jip-2012-0081
Sun Y, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R and Greenwald S (2013). Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability. Pubmed  Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 18, (6) 10.1117/1.JBO.18.6.061205
Louis-Auguste J, Greenwald S, Banda R and Kelly P (2013). MULTIPLE MICRONUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES SMALL BOWEL HISTOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE AND ABSORPTIVE AREA IN ZAMBIAN ADULTS. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism  vol. 63, 1354-1354.

2012

Dulai R, Perry M, Twycross-Lewis R, Morrissey D, Atzeni F and Greenwald S (2012). The effect of tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists on arterial stiffness in rheumatoid arthritis: a literature review. Semin Arthritis Rheum  vol. 42, (1) 1-8. 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2012.02.002
Gardiner HM, Barlas A, Matsui H, Diemart A, Taylor MJO, Preece J, Gordon F, GREENWALD SE and Hecher K (2012). Vascular programming in twins: the effects of chorionicity and fetal therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. , 2012. 3: 182 - 189. Cambridge Journals Online  Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease  vol. 3, (3) 182-189. 10.1017/S204017441200013X
Sun Y, Papin C, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R, Greenwald S and Hu S (2012). Use of ambient light in remote photoplethysmographic systems: comparison between a high-performance camera and a low-cost webcam. Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 17, (3) 10.1117/1.JBO.17.3.037005
Detchaporn P, Kukongviriyapan U, Prawan A, Jetsrisuparb A, Greenwald S and Kukongviriyapan V (2012). Altered Vascular Function, Arterial Stiffness, and Antioxidant Gene Responses in Pediatric Thalassemia Patients. Springer Verlag  10.1007/s00246-012-0225-8
Sun Y, Papin C, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R, GREENWALD SE and Hu S (2012). Use of ambient light in remote photoplethysmographic systems: comparison between a high-performance camera and a low-cost webcam. - 037005-10. Spie Digital Library  Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 17, (3) 037005-1-037005-10. 10.1117/1.JBO.17.3.037005
Gardiner HM, Barlas A, Matsui H, Diemert A, Taylor MJO, Preece J, Gordon F, Greenwald SE and Hecher K (2012). Vascular programming in twins: the effects of chorionicity and fetal therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Cambridge Journals Online  Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease  vol. 3, (3) 182-189. 10.1017/S204017441200013X
Detchaporn P, Kukongviriyapan U, Prawan A, Jetsrisuparb A, Greenwald SE and Kukongviriyapan V (2012). Altered vascular function, arterial stiffness, and antioxidant gene responses in pediatric thalassemia patients. Springer Link  Pediatric Cardiology  vol. 33, (7) 1054-1060. 10.1007/s00246-012-0225-8

2011

Hoonjan B, Dulai R, Ahmed M, Lucey A, Morrissey D, Twycross-Lewis R and Greenwald S (2011). The effect of moderate intensity exercise on arterial stiffness in resistance trained athletes, endurance trained athletes and sedentary controls: a cross-sectional observational study. Br J Sports Med  vol. 45, (15) A7-A8. 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090606.24
Cohen RD, Brown CL, Nickols C, Levey P, Boucher BJ, Greenwald SE and Wang W (2011). Inbuilt mechanisms for overcoming functional problems inherent in hepatic microlobular structure. Comput Math Methods Med  vol. 2011, 10.1155/2011/185845
Sun Y, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Greenwald S, Chambers J and Zhu Y (2011). Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise. Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 16, (7) 10.1117/1.3602852
Yu S, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Zheng J, Greenwald SE, Chambers J and Zhu Y (2011). Detection of physiological changes after exercise via a remote opto-physiological imaging system. 10.1117/12.872723

2010

Timmins LH, Wu QF, Yeh AT, Moore JE and Greenwald SE (2010). Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media. Am J Physiol-Heart C  vol. 298, (5) H1537-H1545. 10.1152/ajpheart.00891.2009

2007

Greenwald SE (2007). Ageing of the conduit arteries. J Pathol  vol. 211, (2) 157-172. 10.1002/path.2101

2006

Screen HRC, Chhaya VH, Greenwald SE, Bader DL, Lee DA and Shelton JC (2006). The influence of swelling and matrix degradation on the microstructural integrity of tendon. Acta Biomater  vol. 2, (5) 505-513. 10.1016/j.actbio.2006.05.008
GREENWALD SE, Screen HRC, Shelton JA, Bader DA, Lee DA and Chhaya VH (2006). Tendon Microstructure and Mechanical Characteristics. Acta Biomateriala  vol. 2, 505-513.
Janzen J, Leitritz M, Janzen K and Greenwald S (2006). The effect of in utero growth retardation on the structure and composition of the cardiovascular system. Perfusion  vol. 19, (4) 130-142. 10.1016/j.mee.2005.10.038

2004

Greenwald SE (2004). Modelling emboli with floating fir cones. Bmj  vol. 329, (7480) 1433-1434. 10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1433
Kelly P, Menzies I, Crane R, Zulu I, Nickols C, Feakins R, Mwansa J, Mudenda V, Katubulushi M, Greenwald S and Farthing M (2004). Responses of small intestinal architecture and function over time to environmental factors in a tropical population. Am J Trop Med Hyg  vol. 70, (4) 412-419. 10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.412

2003

Rachev A and Greenwald SE (2003). Residual strains in conduit arteries (vol 36, pg 661, 2003). J Biomech  vol. 36, (11) 1751-1751. 10.1006/S0021-9290(02)00444-X
Rachev A and Greenwald SE (2003). Erratum: Residual strains in conduit arteries (Journal of Biomechanics (2003) 36 (661-670)). Journal of Biomechanics  vol. 36, (11) 10.1016/S0021-9290(03)00180-5
Rachev A and Greenwald SE (2003). Residual strains in conduit arteries (vol 36, pg 661, 2003). J Biomech  vol. 36, (7) 1067-1067. 10.1016/S0021-9290(03)00111-8
Rachev A and Greenwald SE (2003). Residual strains in conduit arteries. J Biomech  vol. 36, (5) 661-670. 10.1016/s0021-9290(02)00444-x
Gardiner HM, Taylor MJO, Karatza A, Vanderheyden T, Huber A, Greenwald SE, Fisk NM and Hecher K (2003). Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: the influence of intrauterine laser photocoagulation on arterial distensibility in childhood. Circulation  vol. 107, (14) 1906-1911. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000060543.64250.80
GREENWALD SE and Brown AG (2003). Histology and Staining. Biomedical Technology and Devices Handbook. Moore Je, Zouridakis (Eds)  Crc Press  10.1201/9780203491492-24

2002

McMahon AC, Greenwald SE, Dodd SM, Hurst MJ and Raine AEG (2002). Prolonged calcium transients and myocardial remodelling in early experimental uraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant  vol. 17, (5) 759-764. 10.1093/ndt/17.5.759
Kelly P, Menzies I, Crane R, Zulu I, Nickols C, Feakins R, Mudenda V, Katubulushi M, Greenwald S and Farthing M (2002). Tropical enteropathy: A dynamic response to environmental influences. Gut  vol. 50, A91-A91.
Greenwald SE (2002). Pulse pressure and arterial elasticity. Qjm  vol. 95, (2) 107-112. 10.1093/qjmed/95.2.107
Loukogeorgakis S, Dawson R, Phillips N, Martyn CN and Greenwald SE (2002). Validation of a device to measure arterial pulse wave velocity by a photoplethysmographic method. Physiological Measurement  vol. 23, (3) 581-596. 10.1088/0967-3334/23/3/309

2001

Richardson G, Moore AR, Greenwald SE, Benjamin N and Rothman MT (2001). A copper-containing polymer coating generates nitric oxide to inhibit platelet aggregation without inducing inflammation: A possible stent coating? Am J Cardiol  vol. 88, (5A) 14G-14G.
Gardiner HM, Taylor MO, Karatza A, Greenwald SE and Hecher K (2001). Fetal determinants of arterial stiffness: a monochorionic twin study. Eur Heart J  vol. 22, 236-236.
Stergiopulos N, Vulliémoz S, Rachev A, Meister JJ and Greenwald SE (2001). Assessing the homogeneity of the elastic properties and composition of the pig aortic media. J Vasc Res  vol. 38, (3) 237-246. 10.1159/000051052
Sheaff M, Campbell J, Millar J, Feneley M, Greenwald S and Baithun SI (2001). Is angiogenesis related to prognosis in adenocarcinoma of the prostate? J Pathol  vol. 193, 46A-46A.
Bose M, Nickols C, Greenwald S, Feakins R, Perrett D and Farthing M (2001). 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in colonic mucosa in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Assessment by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gut  vol. 48, A57-A57.
GREENWALD SE, Hayashi K, Rachev A, Meister J-J and Stergiopulos N (2001). Techniques in the Determination of the Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Laws of Arterial Wallls. Cardiovascular Technques (Biomechanical Systems: Techniques and Applications). Leondes Ct (Ed)  Crc Press 
GREENWALD SE, Meister J-J, Pannatier A, Rachev A and Stergiopulos N (2001). Assessment of mechanical inhomogeneity in the arterial wall by an artery inversion test. Cardiovascular Engineering  vol. 1, 31-36.

2000

Kelly P, Greenwald SE, Menzies I, Crane R, Feakins R, Zulu I, Mudenda V and Farthing MJ (2000). Differential variation in jejunal, structure and function in tropical and HIV-related enteropathy. Gastroenterology  vol. 118, (4) A94-A94. 10.1016/S0016-5085(00)82454-3
Greenwald SE and Berry CL (2000). Improving vascular grafts: the importance of mechanical and haemodynamic properties. J Pathol  vol. 190, (3) 292-299. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(200002)190:3<292::AID-PATH528>3.0.CO;2-S

1998

Hopkins I, Greenwald S, Berry CL and Berney DM (1998). Quantitative changes in adult rat kidneys subjected to maternal protein deprivation. Journal of Pathology  vol. 186, 34A-34A.

1997

Berney DM, Desai M, Palmer DJ, Greenwald S, Brown A, Hales CN and Berry CL (1997). The effects of maternal protein deprivation on the fetal rat pancreas: Major structural changes and their recuperation. Journal of Pathology  vol. 183, (1) 109-115. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199709)183:1<109::AID-PATH1091>3.0.CO;2-B
Bertram CD, Gow BS and Greenwald SE (1997). Comparison of different methods for the determination of the true wave propagation coefficient, in rubber tubes and the canine thoracic aorta. Medical Engineering & Physics  vol. 19, (3) 212-222. 10.1016/s1350-4533(96)00073-2
Greenwald SE, Moore JE, Rachev A, Kane TP and Meister JJ (1997). Experimental investigation of the distribution of residual strains in the artery wall. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering  vol. 119, (4) 438-444. 10.1115/1.2798291
Martyn CN and Greenwald SE (1997). Impaired synthesis of elastin in walls of aorta and large conduit arteries during early development as an initiating event in pathogenesis of systemic hypertension. Lancet  vol. 350, (9082) 953-955. 10.1016/s0140-6736(96)10508-0

1996

Martyn CN and Greenwald SE (1996). Pulse wave velocity as a marker of vascular disease. Lancet  vol. 348, (9041) 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)66200-9
Badreck-Amoudi A, Patel CK, Kane TP and Greenwald SE (1996). The effect of age on residual strain in the rat aorta. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering  vol. 118, (4) 440-444. 10.1115/1.2796029

1995

Rachev A, Greenwald SE, Kane TP, Moore JE and Meister JJ (1995). Analysis of the strain and stress distribution in the wall of the developing and mature rat aorta. Biorheology  vol. 32, (4) 473-485. 10.1016/0006-355X(95)00024-4
Pollock L, Rampling D, Greenwald SE and Malone M (1995). Desmin expression in rhabdomyosarcoma: influence of the desmin clone and immunohistochemical method. Journal of Clinical Pathology  vol. 48, (6) 535-538. 10.1136/jcp.48.6.535
Vulliemoz S, Stergiopulos N, Greenwald SE, Pannatier A and Meister JJ (1995). Modele a deux couches de la paroi arterielle: Proprietes elastiques et distribution des contraintes. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry  vol. 103, (3) 10.3109/13813459509037271
Martyn CN, Barker DJP, Jespersen S, Greenwald S, Osmond C and Berry C (1995). Growth in utero, adult blood pressure, and arterial compliance. Heart  vol. 73, (2) 116-121. 10.1136/hrt.73.2.116
Saini A, Berry C and Greenwald S (1995). Effect of age and sex on residual stress in the aorta. Journal of Vascular Research  vol. 32, (6) 398-405. 10.1159/000159115
Rachev A, Greenwald SE, Kane TPC, Moore JE and Meister JJ (1995). Erratum: Analysis of the strain and stress distribution in the wall of the developing and mature rat aorta (Biorheology, Vol. 32, No.4, (1995), Page 477). Biorheology  vol. 32, (5) 10.1016/0006-355X(95)90872-U
RACHEV A, GREENWALD SE, KANE TPC, MOORE JE and MEISTER JJ (1995). ANALYSIS OF THE STRAIN AND STRESS-DISTRIBUTION IN THE WALL OF THE DEVELOPING AND MATURE RAT AORTA (VOL 32, PG 477, 1995). Biorheology  vol. 32, (5) 589-589.

1994

Hsiang YNM, Crespo MT, Houston GTM, To EC, Todd ME, Sobeh MS, Greenwald SE and Bower RD (1994). Selective treatment of atherosclerosis using photodynamic therapy in the Yucatan miniswine: preliminary results. Proceedings of Spie - The International Society For Optical Engineering  vol. 2130, 53-58. 10.1117/12.179930
Sobeh MS, Chan P, Greenwald SE, Ham RJ, Wood AJ, Cross FWM and Hsiang YNM (1994). Suppression of neointimal hyperplasia by photodynamic therapy: in vitro and in vivo results. Proceedings of Spie - The International Society For Optical Engineering  vol. 2130, 47-52. 10.1117/12.179929

1993

Berry CL, SosaMelgarejo JA and Greenwald SE (1993). The relationship between wall tension, lamellar thickness, and intercellular junctions in the fetal and adult aorta: Its relevance to the pathology of dissecting aneurysm. The Journal of Pathology  vol. 169, (1) 15-20. 10.1002/path.1711690104

1992

Salih V, Greenwald SE, Chong CF, Coumbe A and Berry CL (1992). The development of an in-vitro perfusion system for studies on cultured cells. International Journal of Experimental Pathology  vol. 73, (5) 625-632.
Bertram CD and Greenwald SE (1992). A general method of determining the frequency-dependent propagation coefficient and characteristic impedance of an artery in the presence of reflections. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering  vol. 114, (1) 2-9. 10.1115/1.2895445
Celermajer DS, Dodd SM, Greenwald SE, Wyse RKH and Deanfield JE (1992). Morbid anatomy in neonates with Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve: Pathophysiologic and clinical implications. Journal of The American College of Cardiology  vol. 19, (5) 1049-1053. 10.1016/0735-1097(92)90293-V
Crooks DA, Scholtz CL, Vowles G, Greenwald S and Evans S (1992). Axonal Injury in Closed Head Injury by Assault: A Quantitative Study. Medicine, Science and The Law  vol. 32, (2) 109-117. 10.1177/106002809203200204

1991

Crooks DA, Scholtz CL, Vowles G, Greenwald S and Evans S (1991). The glial reaction in closed head injuries. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology  vol. 17, (5) 407-414. 10.1111/j.1365-2990.1991.tb00740.x

1990

Greenwald SE, Carter AC and Berry CL (1990). Effect of age on the in vitro reflection coefficient of the aortoiliac bifurcation in humans. Circulation  vol. 82, (1) 114-123. 10.1161/01.CIR.82.1.114

1989

GREENWALD SE (1989). BIRD DROPPINGS. New Scientist  vol. 122, (1660) 65-65.
Tippins JR, Greenwald SE, Lever MJ, MacIntyre I and Morris HR (1989). Coronary vasodilation induced by calcitonin gene-related peptide in the anaesthetised pig. Neuropeptides  vol. 13, (2) 95-102. 10.1016/0143-4179(89)90005-X

1988

Greenwald SE, Collino CE and Berry CL (1988). In vitro determination of lung airway compliance in small animals. Medical &Amp; Biological Engineering &Amp; Computing  vol. 26, (5) 497-502. 10.1007/BF02441917

1987

GREENWALD SE and CLARK AD (1987). MANUSCRIPT MANAGER (CBE STYLE) VERSION-1.1. Biochemical Society Transactions  vol. 15, (3) 567-567. 10.1042/bst0150567
GREENWALD SE and BERRY CL (1987). THE VALIDITY OF NEGATIVE NECROPSY REPORTS FROM METASTASES IN SOLID ORGANS. Journal of Pathology  vol. 152, (1) 57-57.
Berry CL and Greenwald SE (1987). The validity of negative necropsy reports from metastases in solid organs. Journal of Pathology  vol. 151, (3) 239-240. 10.1002/path.1711510312
Berry CL, Greenwald SE, Weiss L, Harlos JP, Norton AJ and Isaacson PG (1987). Letters to the editor. The Journal of Pathology  vol. 151, (3) 239-242. 10.1002/path.1711510312

1986

Moodie TB, Barclay DW and Greenwald SE (1986). Impulse propagation in liquid filled distensible tubes: Theory and experiment for intermediate to long wavelengths. Acta Mechanica  vol. 59, (1-2) 47-58. 10.1007/BF01177059
Newman DL, Sipkema P, Greenwald SE and Westerhof N (1986). High frequency characteristics of the arterial system. Journal of Biomechanics  vol. 19, (10) 817-824. 10.1016/0021-9290(86)90132-6

1985

Greenwald SE, Berry CL and Ramsey RE (1985). The static elastic properties and chemical composition of the rat aorta in spontaneously occurring and experimentally induced hypertension: the effect of an anti-hypertensive drug. British Journal of Experimental Pathology  vol. 66, (6) 633-642.
Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Moodie TB (1985). Impulse propagation in rubber-tube analogues of arterial stenoses and aneurysms. Medical &Amp; Biological Engineering &Amp; Computing  vol. 23, (2) 150-154. 10.1007/BF02456752
Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Moodie TB (1985). Reflection of pressure transients in rubber tube analogues of arterial stenoses and aneurysms.
Greenwald SE, Johnson RJ and Haworth SG (1985). Pulmonary vascular input impedance in the newborn and infant pig. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 19, (1) 44-50. 10.1093/cvr/19.1.44

1984

Moodie TB, Barclay DW, Greenwald SE and Newman DL (1984). Waves in fluid filled tubes: Theory and experiment. Acta Mechanica  vol. 54, (1-2) 107-119. 10.1007/BF01190600
Greenwald SE, Letts LG, Newman DL and Piper PJ (1984). Actions of cysteinyl leukotrienes in coronary, femoral and carotid vessels of the pig. European Journal of Pharmacology  vol. 103, (1-2) 107-114. 10.1016/0014-2999(84)90195-X
Greenwald SE, Berry CL and Kay PH (1984). Modified Blalock-Taussig operation using polytetrafluoroethylene (Impra) grafts. British Heart Journal  vol. 52, (5) 594-595. 10.1136/hrt.52.5.594

1983

Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Bryant Moodie T (1983). Reflection from elastic discontinuities. Medical &Amp; Biological Engineering &Amp; Computing  vol. 21, (6) 697-701. 10.1007/BF02464032
Newman DL, Penney SJ and Greenwald SE (1983). Pulse propagation characteristics by an impulse technique. Medical &Amp; Biological Engineering &Amp; Computing  vol. 21, (4) 515-517. 10.1007/BF02442643
Letts LG, Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Piper PJ (1983). Effects of intra-coronary administration of leukotriene D4 in the anaesthetized dog. Prostaglandins  vol. 26, (4) 563-572. 10.1016/0090-6980(83)90194-6

1982

Greenwald SE, Berry CL and Haworth SG (1982). Changes in the distensibility of the intrapulmonary arteries in the normal newborn and growing pig. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 16, (12) 716-726. 10.1093/cvr/16.12.716
Greenwald SE and Newman DL (1982). Impulse propagation through junctions. Medical &Amp; Biological Engineering &Amp; Computing  vol. 20, (3) 343-350. 10.1007/BF02442802
Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Denyer HT (1982). Effect of smooth muscle activity on the static and dynamic elastic properties of the rabbit carotid artery. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 16, (2) 86-94. 10.1093/cvr/16.2.86
Greenwald SE, Berry CL and Haworth SG (1982). Changes in the distensibility of the intrapulmonary arteries in the normal newborn and growing pig. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 16, (12) 716-725. 10.1093/cvr/16.12.716

1981

Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Denyer HT (1981). Impulse propagation in normal and stenosed vessels. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 15, (4) 190-195. 10.1093/cvr/15.4.190
Berry CL, Greenwald SE and Menahem N (1981). Effect of beta-aminopropionitrile on the static elastic properties and blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 15, (7) 373-381. 10.1093/cvr/15.7.373

1980

Newman DL and Greenwald SE (1980). Analysis of forward and backward pressure waves by a total-occlusion method. Medical &Amp; Biological Engineering &Amp; Computing  vol. 18, (2) 241-245. 10.1007/BF02443301

1979

Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Bowden NLR (1979). An in vivo study of the total occlusion method for the analysis of forward and backward pressure waves. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 13, (10) 595-600. 10.1093/cvr/13.10.595
Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Bowden NLR (1979). An in vivo study of the total occlusion method for the analysis of forward and backward pressure waves. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 13, (10) 595-600. 10.1093/cvr/13.10.595

1978

Greenwald SE and Berry CL (1978). Static mechanical properties and chemical composition of the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats: A comparison with the effects of induced hypertension. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 12, (6) 364-372. 10.1093/cvr/12.6.364
Greenwald SE and Berry CL (1978). Static mechanical properties and chemical composition of the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats: A comparison with the effects of induced hypertension. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 12, (6) 364-372. 10.1093/cvr/12.6.364
Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Bowden NLR (1978). Comparison between theoretical and directly measured pulse propagation velocities in the aorta of the anaesthetised dog. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 12, (7) 407-414. 10.1093/cvr/12.7.407

1976

Berry CL and Greenwald SE (1976). Effects of hypertension on the static mechanical properties and chemical composition of the rat aorta. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 10, (4) 437-451. 10.1093/cvr/10.4.437
Berry CL and Greenwald SE (1976). Effects of hypertension on the static mechanical properties and chemical composition of the rat aorta. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 10, (4) 437-451. 10.1093/cvr/10.4.437

1975

Berry CL, Greenwald SE and Rivett JF (1975). Static mechanical properties of the developing and mature rat aorta. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 9, (5) 669-678. 10.1093/cvr/9.5.669
BERRY CL, GOSLING RG and GREENWALD SE (1975). GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARTERIES, ITS RELEVANCE FOR DEGENERATIVE DISEASE. Artery  vol. 1, (4) 365-365.

1974

Berry CL, Germain J, Newman DL and Greenwald SE (1974). Comparative morphological and functional aspects of the aorta of the major vertebrate classes. Laboratory Animals  vol. 8, (3) 279-289. 10.1258/002367774780943643

1973

Berry CL and Greenwald S (1973). Changes in structure and mechanical properties of the rat aorta induced by a hypertensive period during development. Journal of Pathology  vol. 110, (3)

Grants

Grants of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models
Early stage CARdio Vascular Disease Detection with Integrated Silicon Photonics
Greenwald SE
EUR3,629,206 European Commission (01-02-2015 - 31-01-2019)
Abstract
Acoustic Localisation of Coronary Artery Stenosis
Greenwald SE and Birch MJ
£368,862 Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (16-05-2010 - 16-11-2013)
Abstract


Non contact measurement of aortic compliance
Greenwald S
£99,172 National Institute for Health Research (01-10-2009 - 30-11-2012)
Abstract
A novel method for measuring blood pressure
Chowienczyk PJ, Brett SE, Shennan AH and Greenwald SE
£249,791 Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (30-06-2006 - 29-09-2008)
Abstract