Prof Steffi Krause

Steffi Krause

Professor of Electroanalytical Systems

School of Engineering and Materials Science
Queen Mary University of London
ResearcherID ORCID Google Scholar


electrochemistry, photoelectrochemical imaging, functional cell imaging, biosensors

Underpinning Bioengineering


Our group has developed a photoelectrochemical imaging system for functional imaging of cellular processes in real time and with subcellular resolution. Our measurement technology has been shown to be sensitive to the surface charges and the permeability of cell membranes of cells in culture and is also capable of monitoring the concentrations of ions released by cells.


Publications of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models


Gorecki J and Krause S (2023). Numerical investigation of a graphene-on-semiconductor device for optical monitoring of cell electrophysiology. Elsevier  Iscience  vol. 27, (1) 10.1016/j.isci.2023.108554


Jacques R, Zhou B, Marhuenda E, Gorecki J, Das A, Iskratsch T and Krause S (2022). Photoelectrochemical imaging of single cardiomyocytes and monitoring of their action potentials through contact force manipulation of organoids. Elsevier  Biosensors and Bioelectronics  10.1016/j.bios.2022.115024
Zhou B, Jiang Y, Guo Q, Das A, Jorge Sobrido A, Hing K, Zayats A and Krause S (2022). Photoelectrochemical Detection of Calcium Ions Based on Hematite Nanorod Sensors. American Chemical Society  Acs Applied Nano Materials  10.1021/acsanm.2c03978
Meng Y, Chen F, Wu C, Krause S, Wang J and Zhang DW (2022). Light-Addressable Electrochemical Sensors toward Spatially Resolved Biosensing and Imaging Applications. American Chemical Society  Acs Sensors  10.1021/acssensors.2c00940


Wan K, Liu Y, Santagiuliana G, Barandun G, Taroni Junior P, Güder F, Bastiaansen CWM, Baxendale M, Fenwick O, Papageorgiou DG, Krause S, Zhang H and Bilotti E (2021). Self-powered ultrasensitive and highly stretchable temperature–strain sensing composite yarns. Materials Horizons  10.1039/d1mh00908g
Zhou B, Das A, Zhong M, Guo Q, Zhang D-W, Hing KA, Sobrido AJ, Titirici M-M and Krause S (2021). Photoelectrochemical imaging system with high spatiotemporal resolution for visualizing dynamic cellular responses. Elsevier  Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 180, 10.1016/j.bios.2021.113121


Tu Y, Kyle C, Luo H, Zhang DW, Das A, Briscoe J, Dunn S, Titirici MM and Krause S (2020). Ammonia Gas Sensor Response of a Vertical Zinc Oxide Nanorod-Gold Junction Diode at Room Temperature. Acs Sensors  vol. 5, (11) 3568-3575. 10.1021/acssensors.0c01769


Zhou B, Das A, Kappers M, Oliver R, Humphreys C and Krause S (2019). InGaN as a substrate for AC photoelectrochemical imaging. Mdpi  Sensors  10.3390/s19204386
Wang J, Yang Z, Chen W, Du L, Jiao B, Krause S, Wang P, Wei Q, Zhang D-W and Wu C (2019). Modulated light-activated electrochemistry at silicon functionalized with metal-organic frameworks towards addressable DNA chips. Elsevier  Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 146, 111750-111750. 10.1016/j.bios.2019.111750
Wan K, Taroni PJ, Liu Z, Liu Y, Tu Y, Santagiuliana G, Hsia I, Zhang H, Fenwick O, Krause S, Baxendale M, Schroeder BC and Bilotti E (2019). Flexible and Stretchable Self‐Powered Multi‐Sensors Based on the N‐Type Thermoelectric Response of Polyurethane/Na x (Ni‐ett) n Composites. Wiley  Advanced Electronic Materials  1900582-1900582. 10.1002/aelm.201900582
Ahmad N, Colak B, Gibbs MJ, Zhang D-W, Gautrot JE, Watkinson M, Becer CR and Krause S (2019). Peptide Cross-Linked Poly(2-oxazoline) as a Sensor Material for the Detection of Proteases with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Biomacromolecules  vol. 20, (7) 2506-2514. 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00245
Wu F, Zhou B, Wang J, Zhong M, Das A, Watkinson M, Hing K, Zhang D-W and Krause S (2019). Photoelectrochemical Imaging System for the Mapping of Cell Surface Charges. Anal Chem  10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00304
Ahmad N, Colak B, Zhang D-W, Gibbs MJ, Watkinson M, Becer CR, Gautrot JE and Krause S (2019). Peptide Cross-Linked Poly (Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogel Films as Biosensor Coatings for the Detection of Collagenase. Mdpi  Sensors  vol. 19, (7) 10.3390/s19071677


Zhang D, Papaioannou N, Titirici M-M and Krause S (2018). Photoelectrochemical Imaging Using Carbon Dots (CDs) Derived from Chitosan. Mdpi  Proceedings  vol. 2, (13) 10.3390/proceedings2130778
Ahmad N, Colak B, Gibbs MJ, Zhang D-W, Becer CR, Watkinson M, Gautrot JE and Krause S (2018). Collagenase Biosensor Based on the Degradation of Peptide Cross-Linked Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogel Films. Mdpi  10.3390/proceedings2130961
TU Y, AHMAD N, BRISCOE J, ZHANG D and KRAUSE S (2018). Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors using ZnO Nanorods as the Sensor Substrate for Bioanalytical Applications. American Chemical Society  Analytical Chemistry  10.1021/acs.analchem.8b02244
Wang J, Du L, Krause S, Wu C and Wang P (2018). Surface modification and construction of LAPS towards biosensing applications. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical  vol. 265, 161-173. 10.1016/j.snb.2018.02.190
ZHANG D, PAPAIOANNOU N, David NM, LUO H, GAO H, Tanase LC, Degousee T, Samori P, SAPELKIN A, FENWICK O, TITIRICI M and KRAUSE SK (2018). Photoelectrochemical response of carbon dots (CDs) derived from chitosan and their use in electrochemical imaging. Rsc  Materials Horizons  10.1039/c7mh00784a
TU Y, CHEN S, LI X, GORBACIOVA J, GILLIN WP, KRAUSE S and BRISCOE J (2018). Control of oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanorods by annealing and their influence on ZnO/PEDOT:PSS diode behaviour. Royal Society of Chemistry  Journal of Materials Chemistry C  10.1039/C7TC04284A
Schöning MJ, Wagner T, Poghossian A, Miyamoto K-I, Werner CF, Krause S and Yoshinobu T (2018). Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors for (Bio-)chemical Sensing and Imaging. Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry  Elsevier  10.1016/b978-0-12-409547-2.13483-3
Yoshinobu T, Krause S, Miyamoto K-I, Werner CF, Poghossian A, Wagner T and Schöning MJ (2018). (Bio-)chemical Sensing and Imaging by LAPS and SPIM. Label-Free Biosensing  Springer Nature  10.1007/5346_2017_22


Zhang D, Wu F and KRAUSE SK (2017). LAPS and SPIM imaging using ITO coated glass as the substrate material. American Chemical Society  Analytical Chemistry  10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01898
Wu F, Campos I, Zhang D and KRAUSE SK (2017). Biological imaging using light-addressable potentiometric sensors and scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Royal Society, The  Proceedings of The Royal Society a: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  10.1098/rspa.2017.0130
Zhang D and Krause S (2017). Image Detection of Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae By Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors (LAPS). The Electrochemical Society  Ecs Meeting Abstracts  vol. MA2017-01, (38) 1770-1770. 10.1149/ma2017-01/38/1770
Wu F, Watkinson M and Krause S (2017). Electrochemical Imaging of Copper Contamination on Self-Assembled Organic Monolayer Modified Silicon Surfaces Following a ‘Click’ Reaction with Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors and Scanning Photo-Induced Impedance Microscopy. The Electrochemical Society  Ecs Meeting Abstracts  vol. MA2017-01, (38) 1769-1769. 10.1149/ma2017-01/38/1769
Wu F, Zhang DW, Wang J, Watkinson M and Krause S (2017). Copper Contamination of Self-Assembled Organic Monolayer Modified Silicon Surfaces Following a “Click” Reaction Characterized with LAPS and SPIM. Langmuir  vol. 33, (13) 3170-3177. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03831
Krause S (2017). High-resolution impedance and potential imaging using light-addressable potentiometric sensors for bio-imaging applications. 10.11470/jsapmeeting.2017.1.0_222


Zhang DW, Wu F, Wang J, Watkinson M and KRAUSE SK (2016). Image detection of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS). Electrochemistry Communications  vol. 72, 41-45. 10.1016/j.elecom.2016.08.017
Wang J, Campos I, Wu F, Zhu J, Sukhorukov GB, Palma M, Watkinson M and Krause S (2016). The effect of gold nanoparticles on the impedance of microcapsules visualized by scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 208, 39-46. 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.05.017


Wang J, Wu F, Watkinson M, Zhu J and Krause S (2015). click Patterning of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Surfaces and Their Characterization Using Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors. Langmuir  vol. 31, (35) 9646-9654. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02069
Gibbs MJ, Biela A and Krause S (2015). α-Amylase sensor based on the degradation of oligosaccharide hydrogel films monitored with a quartz crystal sensor. Biosens Bioelectron  vol. 67, 540-545. 10.1016/j.bios.2014.09.036
Zhang H, Yilmaz P, Ansari JO, Khan FF, Binions R, Krause S and Dunn S (2015). Incorporation of Ag nanowires in CuWO4 for improved visible light-induced photoanode performance. Journal of Materials Chemistry A  vol. 3, (18) 9638-9644. 10.1039/c4ta07213h
Biela A, Watkinson M, Meier UC, Baker D, Giovannoni G, Becer CR and Krause S (2015). Disposable MMP-9 sensor based on the degradation of peptide cross-linked hydrogel films using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 68, 660-667. 10.1016/j.bios.2015.01.060


Wang J, Zhou Y, Watkinson M, Gautrot J and Krause S (2014). High-sensitivity light-addressable potentiometric sensors using silicon on sapphire functionalized with self-assembled organic monolayers. Elsevier  Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 209, 230-236. 10.1016/j.snb.2014.11.071


Dzaraini K, Norizan A, Krause S, Hunter C and Milanesi L (2013). Degradation behaviour of thin polymer films of poly (amide ester) hydrogel using quartz crystal microbalance. Advanced Materials Research  vol. 812, 38-45. 10.4028/


Zhang DW, Zhang FT, Cui YR, Deng QP, Krause S, Zhou YL and Zhang XX (2012). A label-free aptasensor for the sensitive and specific detection of cocaine using supramolecular aptamer fragments/target complex by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Talanta  vol. 92, 65-71. 10.1016/j.talanta.2012.01.049


Zheng X, Cook JP, Watkinson M, Yang S, Douglas I, Rawlinson A and Krause S (2011). Generic protease detection technology for monitoring periodontal disease. Faraday Discussions  vol. 149, 37-47. 10.1039/c005364c


Chen L, Zhou Y, Jiang S, Kunze J, Schmuki P and Krause S (2010). High resolution LAPS and SPIM. Electrochemistry Communications  vol. 12, (6) 758-760. 10.1016/j.elecom.2010.03.026


Kamarun D, Zheng XW, Milanesi L, Hunter CA and Krause S (2009). A peptide cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogel for the detection of human neutrophil elastase. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 54, (22) 4985-4990. 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.03.067
Stair JL, Watkinson M and Krause S (2009). Sensor materials for the detection of proteases. Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 24, (7) 2113-2118. 10.1016/j.bios.2008.11.002
Sweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Selected Papers from the Second International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic and Photonic Materials and Applications, 2007. J Mater Sci-Mater El  vol. 20, 1-2. 10.1007/s10854-008-9740-z
Sweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Editorial: Selected papers from the second international conference on optical, optoelectronic and photonic materials and applications, 2007. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics  vol. 20, (SUPPL. 1) 10.1007/s10854-008-9740-z


Chen L, Zhou Y, Krause S, Munoz AG, Kunze J and Schmuki P (2008). Repair of thin thermally grown silicon dioxide by anodic oxidation. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 53, (8) 3395-3402. 10.1016/j.electacta.2007.11.065


Zhou Y, Jiang S, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Biosensor arrays based on the degradation of thin polymer films interrogated by scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy. Anal Chem  vol. 79, (23) 8974-8978. 10.1021/ac071437t
Zhou Y, Chen L, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy using amorphous silicon photodiode structures. Anal Chem  vol. 79, (16) 6208-6214. 10.1021/ac070797d


Krause S, Moritz W, Talabani H, Xu M, Sabot A and Ensell G (2006). Scanning Photo-Induced Impedance Microscopy - Resolution studies and polymer characterization. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 51, (8-9) 1423-1430. 10.1016/j.electacta.2005.02.119
KRAUSE SK, Fernandez-Sanchez C and McNeil CJ (2006). Sensors based on thin film degradation. Encyclopedia of Sensors  American Scientific Publishers 


Moritz W, Yoshinobu T, Finger F, Krause S, Martin-Fernandez M and Schoning MJ (2004). High resolution LAPS using amorphous silicon as the semiconductor material. Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical  vol. 103, (1-2) 436-441. 10.1016/j.snb.2004.04.073


KRAUSE SK (2003). Impedance methods. Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, Volume 3, Instrumentation and Electroanalytical Chemistry  Wiley-Vch Verlag  10.1002/9783527610426.bard030206


Sabot A and Krause S (2002). Simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance impedance and electrochemical impedance measurements. Investigation into the degradation of thin polymer films. Anal Chem  vol. 74, (14) 3304-3311. 10.1021/ac0200724
Krause S, Talabani H, Xu M, Moritz W and Griffiths J (2002). Scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy - an impedance based imaging technique. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 47, (13-14) 2143-2148. 10.1016/S0013-4686(02)00088-9


Sumner C, Krause S, Sabot A, Turner K and McNeil CJ (2001). Biosensor based on enzyme-catalysed degradation of thin polymer films. Biosensors & Bioelectronics  vol. 16, (9-12) 709-714. 10.1016/s0956-5663(01)00210-x
Moritz W, Krause S, Roth U, Klimm D and Lippitz A (2001). Re-activation of an all solid state oxygen sensor. Anal Chim Acta  vol. 437, (2) 183-190. 10.1016/S0003-2670(01)00993-X


Sumner C, Sabot A, Turner K and Krause S (2000). A transducer based on enzyme-induced degradation of thin polymer films monitored by surface plasmon resonance. Anal Chem  vol. 72, (21) 5225-5232. 10.1021/ac000411y
Moritz W, Gerhardt I, Roden D, Xu M and Krause S (2000). Photocurrent measurements for laterally resolved interface characterization. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry  vol. 367, (4) 329-333. 10.1007/s002160000409


Ho WO, Krause S, McNeil CJ, Pritchard JA, Armstrong RD, Athey D and Rawson K (1999). Electrochemical sensor for measurement of urea and creatinine in serum based on ac impedance measurement of enzyme-catalyzed polymer transformation. Anal Chem  vol. 71, (10) 1940-1946. 10.1021/ac981367d


Moritz W, Krause S, Bartholomäus L, Gabusjan T, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1998). Silicon-Based Sensor for Flourine Gas. Acs Symposium Series  vol. 690, 119-129. 10.1021/bk-1998-0690.ch010


McNeil CJ, Athey D, Ball M, Ho WO, Krause S, Armstrong RD, Des Wright J and Rawson K (1995). Electrochemical Sensors Based on Impedance Measurement of Enzyme-Catalyzed Polymer Dissolution: Theory and Applications. American Chemical Society (Acs)  Analytical Chemistry  vol. 67, (21) 3928-3935. 10.1021/ac00117a018
Moritz W, Krause S, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1995). Monitoring of HF and F2 using a field-effect sensor. Elsevier  Sensors and Actuators B Chemical  vol. 24, (1-3) 194-196. 10.1016/0925-4005(95)85041-4


Krause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1994). Improved long-term stability for an LaF3 based oxygen sensor. Elsevier  Sensors and Actuators B Chemical  vol. 18, (1-3) 148-154. 10.1016/0925-4005(94)87074-8


Krause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1992). A low-temperature oxygen sensor based on the Si/LaF3/Pt capacitive structure. Elsevier  Sensors and Actuators B Chemical  vol. 9, (3) 191-196. 10.1016/0925-4005(92)80215-j


Bobrov PV, Tarantov YA, Krause S and Moritz W (1991). Chemical sensitivity of an ISFET with Ta2O5 membrane in strong acid and alkaline solutions. Elsevier  Sensors and Actuators B Chemical  vol. 3, (1) 75-81. 10.1016/0925-4005(91)85010-g


Grants of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models
3D Photoelectrochemical imaging in porous light-addressable structures
Krause SK, Zhou B and Iskratsch T
£202,249 Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (01-02-2021 - 31-10-2022)
Combined LAPS and SICM for multimodal live cell imaging
Wang W, Krause SK and Das A
£571,838 Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (01-09-2018 - 31-08-2022)
Light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) for zinc imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution for elucidating the role of zinc in age related macular degeneration
Krause SK and Das A
£146,591 Horizon 2020 (01-07-2017 - 30-06-2019)
Towards in-vivo electrochemical imaging with flexible, light-addressable electrodes
Krause SK and Fenwick OJ
£15,000 Royal Society (15-03-2018 - 14-03-2019)
Super-resolution Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors (LAPS)
Krause SK and Zhang D
£147,661 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (20-07-2017 - 19-07-2018)