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Prof Eric Parkinson

Eric Parkinson

Professor of Head & Neck Cancer

Dental Institute
School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London
07854 046536



I have 40 years of experience in rodent and human keratinocyte culture and have a large cell line panel representing all the stages of oral cancer with matched cancer-associated fibroblasts. The keratinocytes are extensively characterised for driver mutations, gene copy number alterations and transcriptomics. We have published extensively on this and reviewed some of it in Nature Reviews in Cancer. In addition, I have extensive experience in myoblast, adipocyte and atsrocyte culture and the field of cellualr senescence.


Publications of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models


Tan ML, Parkinson EK, Yap LF and Paterson IC (2021). Autophagy is deregulated in cancer-associated fibroblasts from oral cancer and is stimulated during the induction of fibroblast senescence by TGF-β1. Scientific Reports  vol. 11, (1) 10.1038/s41598-020-79789-8
Drexler K, Schmidt KM, Jordan K, Federlin M, Milenkovic VM, Liebisch G, Artati A, Schmidl C, Madej G, Tokarz J, Cecil A, Jagla W, Haerteis S, Aung T, Wagner C, Kolodziejczyk M, Heinke S, Stanton EH, Schwertner B, Riegel D, Wetzel CH, Buchalla W, Proescholdt M, Klein CA, Berneburg M, Schlitt HJ, Brabletz T, Ziegler C, Parkinson EK and Gaumann A (2021). Cancer-associated cells release citrate to support tumour metastatic progression. Life Science Alliance  vol. 4, (6) 10.26508/LSA.202000903
Huang Y, Jedli ková H, Cai Y, Rehman A, Gammon L, Ahmad US, Uttagomol J, Parkinson EK, Fortune F and Wan H (2021). Oxidative Stress-Mediated YAP Dysregulation Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Pemphigus Vulgaris. Frontiers in Immunology  vol. 12, 10.3389/fimmu.2021.649502
Mello FW, Kammer PV, Silva CAB, Parkinson EK, Monteiro L, Warnakulasuriya S and Rivero ERC (2021). Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of podoplanin immunoexpression in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine  vol. 50, (1) 1-9. 10.1111/jop.13041


Haferkamp S, Drexler K, Federlin M, Schlitt HJ, Berneburg M, Adamski J, Gaumann A, Geissler EK, Ganapathy V, Parkinson EK and Mycielska ME (2020). Extracellular Citrate Fuels Cancer Cell Metabolism and Growth. Frontiers Media  Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology  vol. 8, 602476-602476. 10.3389/fcell.2020.602476
Houacine S, Kang A, Parkinson EK, Wan H and Fortune F (2020). Induction of p53 in keratinocyte cultures treated with Behçet's patient sera. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine  vol. 49, (5) 435-442. 10.1111/jop.13005


Veeramachaneni R, Walker T, Revil T, Weck AD, Badescu D, O Sullivan J, Higgins C, Elliott L, Liloglou T, Risk JM, Shaw R, Hampson L, Hampson I, Dearden S, Woodwards R, Prime S, Hunter K, Parkinson EK, Ragoussis J and Thakker N (2019). Analysis of head and neck carcinoma progression reveals novel and relevant stage-specific changes associated with immortalisation and malignancy. Scientific Reports  vol. 9, (1) 10.1038/s41598-019-48229-7
Lai SL, Tan ML, Hollows RJ, Robinson M, Ibrahim M, Margielewska S, Parkinson EK, Ramanathan A, Zain RB, Mehanna H, Spruce RJ, Wei W, Chung I, Murray PG, Yap LF and Paterson IC (2019). Collagen induces a more proliferative, migratory and chemoresistant phenotype in head and neck cancer via DDR1. Cancers  vol. 11, (11) 10.3390/cancers11111766
Wan H, Li X, Ahmad U, Huang Y, Uttagomol J, Rehman A, Zhou K, Warnes G, Mcarthur S and Parkinson E (2019). Desmoglein-3 acts as a pro-survival protein by suppressing reactive oxygen species and doming whilst augmenting the tight junctions in MDCK cells. Elsevier  Mechanisms of Ageing and Development  10.1016/j.mad.2019.111174
Rehman A, Cai Y, Hünefeld C, Jedli ková H, Huang Y, Teck Teh M, Sharif Ahmad U, Uttagomol J, Wang Y, Kang A, Warnes G, Harwood C, Bergamaschi D, Kenneth Parkinson E, Röcken M and Wan H (2019). The desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-3 acts as a keratinocyte anti-stress protein via suppression of p53. Cell Death and Disease  vol. 10, (10) 10.1038/s41419-019-1988-0


PARKINSON E, JAMES E and Bennett M (2018). The induction of the fibroblast extracellular senescence metabolome is a dynamic process. Scientific Reports  10.1038/s41598-018-29809-5
Melling GE, Flannery SE, Abidin SA, Clemmens H, Prajapati P, Hinsley EE, Hunt S, Catto JWF, Coletta RD, Mellone M, Thomas GJ, Parkinson EK, Prime SS, Paterson IC, Buttle DJ and Lambert DW (2018). Corrigendum: A miRNA-145/TGF-β1 negative feedback loop regulates the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype (Carcinogenesis (2018) 39:6 (798-807) DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgy032). Carcinogenesis  vol. 39, (8) 10.1093/carcin/bgy083
Melling GE, Flannery SE, Abidin SA, Clemmens H, Prajapati P, Hinsley EE, Hunt S, Catto JWF, Coletta RD, Mellone M, Thomas GJ, Parkinson EK, Prime SS, Paterson IC, Buttle DJ and Lambert DW (2018). A miRNA-145/TGF-β1 negative feedback loop regulates the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype. Carcinogenesis  vol. 39, (6) 798-807. 10.1093/carcin/bgy032
Bergmeier LA and Parkinson EK (2018). Future directions of research in the oral mucosa. Oral Mucosa in Health and Disease: a Concise Handbook  10.1007/978-3-319-56065-6_13
Parkinson EK (2018). Oral cancer: Recent developments and future challenges. Oral Mucosa in Health and Disease: a Concise Handbook  10.1007/978-3-319-56065-6_8


James EL, Lane JAE, Michalek RD, Karoly ED and Parkinson EK (2016). Replicatively senescent human fibroblasts reveal a distinct intracellular metabolic profile with alterations in NAD+ and nicotinamide metabolism. Nature Publishing Group  Scientific Reports  vol. 6, 38489-38489. 10.1038/srep38489
Cirillo N, Hassona Y, Celentano A, Lim KP, Manchella S, Parkinson EK and Prime SS (2016). Cancer associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion via TGF-ß-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer. Carcinogenesis  vol. 38, (1) 76-85. 10.1093/carcin/bgw113
PARKINSON EK (2016). A miR‐335/COX‐2/PTEN axis regulates the secretory phenotype of senescent cancerassociated fibroblasts. Impact Journals  Aging  10.18632/aging.100987
Parkinson EK, James EL and Prime SS (2016). Senescence-Derived Extracellular Molecules as Modulators of Oral Cancer Development: A Mini-Review. Gerontology  vol. 62, (4) 417-424. 10.1159/000440954
Prime SS, Cirillo N, Hassona Y, Lambert DW, Paterson IC, Mellone M, Thomas GJ, James ENL and Parkinson EK (2016). Fibroblast activation and senescence in oral cancer. Wiley: 12 Months  Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine  10.1111/jop.12456
Rehman A, Ali S, Lone MA, Atif M, Hassona Y, Prime SS, Pitiyage GN, James ELN and Parkinson EK (2016). Areca nut alkaloids induce irreparable DNA damage and senescence in fibroblasts and may create a favourable environment for tumour progression. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine  vol. 45, (5) 365-372. 10.1111/jop.12370


James EL, Michalek RD, Pitiyage GN, De Castro AM, Vignola KS, Jones J, Mohney RP, Karoly ED, Prime SS and Parkinson EK (2015). Senescent human fibroblasts show increased glycolysis and redox homeostasis with extracellular metabolomes that overlap with those of irreparable DNA damage, aging, and disease. Journal of Proteome Research  vol. 14, (4) 1854-1871. 10.1021/pr501221g
Rivero ERC, Hassona Y, Prime SS and Parkinson EK (2015). Senescence Induced by Ethanol in Oral Fibroblasts. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology  vol. 119, (3) e120-e121. 10.1016/j.oooo.2014.07.080
James EL and Parkinson EK (2015). Serum metabolomics in animal models and human disease. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care  vol. 18, (5) 478-483. 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000200
Dale TP, de Castro A, Kuiper NJ, Parkinson EK and Forsyth NR (2015). Immortalisation with hTERT Impacts on Sulphated Glycosaminoglycan Secretion and Immunophenotype in a Variable and Cell Specific Manner. Plos One  vol. 10, (7) 10.1371/journal.pone.0133745


Hassona Y, Cirillo N, Heesom K, Parkinson EK and Prime SS (2014). Senescent cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete active MMP-2 that promotes keratinocyte dis-cohesion and invasion. Br J Cancer  vol. 111, (6) 1230-1237. 10.1038/bjc.2014.438
Dale TP, De Castro A, Parkinson EK, Kuiper NJ and Forsyth NR (2014). Immortalisation with hTERT impacts on sulphated glycosaminoglycan secretion and chondrogenic potential in a variable and cell specific manner. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine  vol. 8, 366-366. 10.1371/journal.pone.0133745
de Castro A, Minty F, Hattinger E, Wolf R and Parkinson EK (2014). The secreted protein S100A7 (psoriasin) is induced by telomere dysfunction in human keratinocytes independently of a DNA damage response and cell cycle regulators. Longev Healthspan  vol. 3, 10.1186/2046-2395-3-8


Nikolakopoulou Z, Nteliopoulos G, Michael-Titus AT and Parkinson EK (2013). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids selectively inhibit growth in neoplastic oral keratinocytes by differentially activating ERK1/2. Oxford University Press  Carcinogenesis  vol. N/A, 1-38. 10.1093/carcin/bgt257
Hassona Y, Cirillo N, Lim KP, Herman A, Mellone M, Thomas GJ, Pitiyage GN, Parkinson EK and Prime SS (2013). Progression of genotype-specific oral cancer leads to senescence of cancer-associated fibroblasts and is mediated by oxidative stress and TGF-β. Carcinogenesis  vol. 34, (6) 1286-1295. 10.1093/carcin/bgt035
Nikolakopoulou Z, Shaikh MH, Dehlawi H, Michael-Titus AT and Parkinson EK (2013). The induction of apoptosis in pre-malignant keratinocytes by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is inhibited by albumin. Toxicol Lett  vol. 218, (2) 150-158. 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.01.021


Pitiyage GN, Lim KP, Gemenitzidis E, Teh M-T, Waseem A, Prime SS, Tilakaratne WM, Fortune F and Parkinson EK (2012). Increased secretion of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (TIMPs -1 and -2) in fibroblasts are early indicators of oral sub-mucous fibrosis and ageing. J Oral Pathol Med  vol. 41, (6) 454-462. 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2012.01129.x


Hunter K, Parkinson EK and Thakker N (2011). An overview of the molecular pathology of head and neck cancer, and its clinical implications. Periodontology 2000  vol. 57, (1) 132-149. 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2011.00387.x
Pitiyage GN, Slijepcevic P, Gabrani A, Chianea YG, Lim KP, Prime SS, Tilakaratne WM, Fortune F and Parkinson EK (2011). Senescent mesenchymal cells accumulate in human fibrosis by a telomere-independent mechanism and ameliorate fibrosis through matrix metalloproteinases. J Pathol  vol. 223, (5) 604-617. 10.1002/path.2839
Lim KP, Cirillo N, Hassona Y, Wei WB, Thurlow JK, Cheong SC, Pitiyage G, Parkinson EK and Prime SS (2011). Fibroblast gene expression profile reflects the stage of tumour progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Pathol  vol. 223, (4) 459-469. 10.1002/path.2841
Gemenetzidis E, Costea DE, Parkinson EK, Waseem A, Wan H and Teh MT (2011). Induction of human epithelial stem/progenitor expansion by FOXM1 (Cancer Research (2010) 70, (9515-9526)). Cancer Research  vol. 71, (1) 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-4082
Teh M-T, Parkinson EK, Thurlow JK, Liu F, Fortune F and Wan H (2011). A molecular study of desmosomes identifies a desmoglein isoform switch in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med  vol. 40, (1) 67-76. 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2010.00951.x


Parkinson EK (2010). Senescence as a modulator of oral squamous cell carcinoma development. Oral Oncol  vol. 46, (12) 840-853. 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2009.09.009
Thurlow JK, Peña Murillo CL, Hunter KD, Buffa FM, Patiar S, Betts G, West CML, Harris AL, Parkinson EK, Harrison PR, Ozanne BW, Partridge M and Kalna G (2010). Spectral clustering of microarray data elucidates the roles of microenvironment remodeling and immune responses in survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol  vol. 28, (17) 2881-2888. 10.1200/JCO.2009.24.8724
Gemenetzidis E, Elena-Costea D, Parkinson EK, Waseem A, Wan H and Teh MT (2010). Induction of Human Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Expansion by FOXM1. American Association For Cancer Research.  Cancer Research  vol. 70, (22) 9515-9526. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2173


Syed ML, Syed S, Minty F, Harrower S, Singh J, Chin A, McLellan DR, Parkinson EK and Clark LJ (2009). Gamma tubulin: A promising indicator of recurrence in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Otolaryng Head Neck  vol. 140, (4) 498-504. 10.1016/j.otohns.2008.12.049
Gemenetzidis E, Bose A, Riaz AM, Chaplin T, Young BD, Ali M, Sugden D, Thurlow JK, Cheong S-C, Teo S-H, Wan H, Waseem A, Parkinson EK, Fortune F and Teh M-T (2009). FOXM1 upregulation is an early event in human squamous cell carcinoma and it is enhanced by nicotine during malignant transformation. Plos One  vol. 4, (3) 10.1371/journal.pone.0004849


Maclntyre A, Brouilette SW, Lamb K, Radhakrishnan K, McGlynn L, Chee MM, Parkinson EK, Freeman D, Madhok R and Shiels PG (2008). Association of increased telomere lengths in limited scleroderma, with a lack of age-related telomere erosion. Ann Rheum Dis  vol. 67, (12) 1780-1782. 10.1136/ard.2007.086652
Minty F, Thurlow JK, Harrison PR and Parkinson EK (2008). Telomere dysfunction in human keratinocytes elicits senescence and a novel transcription profile. Exp Cell Res  vol. 314, (13) 2434-2447. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2008.05.007
Tilakaratne WM, Iqbal Z, Teh MT, Ariyawardana A, Pitiyage G, Cruchley A, Stewart JE, Hagi-Pavli E, Lalli A, Waseem A, Parkinson EK and Fortune F (2008). Upregulation of HIF-1 alpha in malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis. J Oral Pathol Med  vol. 37, (6) 372-377. 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2007.00625.x
Lalli A, Tilakaratne WM, Ariyawardana A, Fitchett C, Leigh IM, Hagi-Pavli E, Cruchley AT, Parkinson EK, Teh MT, Fortune F and Waseem A (2008). An altered keratinocyte phenotype in oral submucous fibrosis: correlation of keratin K17 expression with disease severity. J Oral Pathol Med  vol. 37, (4) 211-220. 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2007.00609.x
McCaul JA, Gordon KE, Minty F, Fleming J and Parkinson EK (2008). Telomere dysfunction is related to the intrinsic radio-resistance of human oral cancer cells. Oral Oncol  vol. 44, (3) 261-269. 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2007.02.010
Parkinson EK, Fitchett C and Cereser B (2008). Dissecting the non-canonical functions of telomerase. Cytogenet Genome Res  vol. 122, (3-4) 273-280. 10.1159/000167813


Syed MI, Syed S, Harrower S, Singh J, Chin A, McLellan D, Parkinson EK and Clark LJ (2007). Gamma tubulin: a powerful indicator of recurrence in human squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Clinical Otolaryngology  vol. 32, (6) 511-511. 10.1111/j.1749-4486.2007.01568_9.x
Parkinson EK and Minty F (2007). Anticancer therapy targeting telomeres and telomerase : current status. Biodrugs  vol. 21, (6) 375-385. 10.2165/00063030-200721060-00005


Hunter KD, Thurlow JK, Fleming J, Drake PJH, Vass JK, Kalna G, Higham DJ, Herzyk P, Macdonald DG, Parkinson EK and Harrison PR (2006). Divergent routes to oral cancer. Cancer Res  vol. 66, (15) 7405-7413. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0186
Sedghizadeh PP, Mallery SR, Thompson SJ, Kresty L, Beck FM, Parkinson EK, Biancamano J and Lang JC (2006). Expression of the serine protease Desc1 correlates directly with normal keratinocyte differentiation and inversely with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma progression. Head Neck-J Sci Spec  vol. 28, (5) 432-440. 10.1002/hed.20346
Pring M, Prime S, Parkinson EK and Paterson I (2006). Dysregulated TGF-beta 1-induced Smad signalling occurs as a result of defects in multiple components of the TGF-beta signalling pathway in human head and neck carcinoma cell lines. Int J Oncol  vol. 28, (5) 1279-1285. 10.3892/ijo.28.5.1279


Parkinson EK (2005). Telomerase as a target for cancer therapy. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs  vol. 6, (6) 605-610.
Hunter KD, Parkinson EK and Harrison PR (2005). Profiling early head and neck cancer. Nat Rev Cancer  vol. 5, (2) 127-135. 10.1038/nrc1549


Munro J, Barr NI, Ireland H, Morrison V and Parkinson EK (2004). Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce a senescence-like state in human cells by a p16-dependent mechanism that is independent of a mitotic clock. Exp Cell Res  vol. 295, (2) 525-538. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.01.017
Scott LA, Vass JK, Parkinson EK, Gillespie DAF, Winnie JN and Ozanne BW (2004). Invasion of normal human fibroblasts induced by v-Fos is independent of proliferation, immortalization, and the tumor suppressors p16INK4a and p53. Mol Cell Biol  vol. 24, (4) 1540-1559. 10.1128/MCB.24.4.1540-1559.2004
Gordon KE and Parkinson EK (2004). Analysis of telomerase activity and telomere function in cancer. Methods Mol Biol  vol. 281, 333-348. 10.1385/1-59259-811-0:333


Muntoni A, Fleming J, Gordon KE, Hunter K, McGregor F, Parkinson EK and Harrison PR (2003). Senescing oral dysplasias are not immortalized by ectopic expression of hTERT alone without other molecular changes, such as loss of INK4A and/or retinoic acid receptor-beta: but p53 mutations are not necessarily required. Oncogene  vol. 22, (49) 7804-7808. 10.1038/sj.onc.1207085
Wootton M, Steeghs K, Watt D, Munro J, Gordon K, Ireland H, Morrison V, Behan W and Parkinson EK (2003). Telomerase alone extends the replicative life span of human skeletal muscle cells without compromising genomic stability. Hum Gene Ther  vol. 14, (15) 1473-1487. 10.1089/104303403769211682
Fitzsimmons SA, Ireland H, Barr NI, Cuthbert AP, Going JJ, Newbold RF and Parkinson EK (2003). Human squamous cell carcinomas lose a mortality gene from chromosome 6q14.3 to q15. Oncogene  vol. 22, (11) 1737-1746. 10.1038/sj.onc.1206295
Gordon KE, Ireland H, Roberts M, Steeghs K, McCaul JA, MacDonald DG and Parkinson EK (2003). High levels of telomere dysfunction bestow a selective disadvantage during the progression of human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res  vol. 63, (2) 458-467.
Parkinson EK (2003). Telomerase as a novel and potentially selective target for cancer chemotherapy. Ann Med  vol. 35, (7) 466-475. 10.1080/07853890310006361


Bryce SD, Morrison V, Craig NJ, Forsyth NR, Fitzsimmons SA, Ireland H, Cuthbert AP, Newbold RF and Parkinson EK (2002). A mortality gene(s) for the human adenocarcinoma line HeLa maps to a 130-kb region of human chromosome 4q22-q23. Neoplasia  vol. 4, (6) 544-550. 10.1038/sj.neo.7900268
McGregor F, Muntoni A, Fleming J, Brown J, Felix DH, MacDonald DG, Parkinson EK and Harrison PR (2002). Molecular changes associated with oral dysplasia progression and acquisition of immortality: potential for its reversal by 5-azacytidine. Cancer Res  vol. 62, (16) 4757-4766.
Forsyth NR, Morrison V, Craig NJ, Fitzsimmons SA, Barr NI, Ireland H, Gordon KE, Dowen S, Cuthbert AP, Newbold RF, Bryce SD and Parkinson EK (2002). Functional evidence for a squamous cell carcinoma mortality gene(s) on human chromosome 4. Oncogene  vol. 21, (33) 5135-5147. 10.1038/sj.onc.1205688
McCaul JA, Gordon KE, Clark LJ and Parkinson EK (2002). Telomerase inhibition and the future management of head-and-neck cancer. Lancet Oncol  vol. 3, (5) 280-288. 10.1016/s1470-2045(02)00729-5
Paterson IC, Davies M, Stone A, Huntley S, Smith E, Pring M, Eveson JW, Robinson CM, Parkinson EK and Prime SS (2002). TGF-beta 1 acts as a tumor suppressor of human malignant keratinocytes independently of Smad 4 expression and ligand-induced G(1) arrest. Oncogene  vol. 21, (10) 1616-1624. 10.1038/sj/onc/1205217


Snaddon J, Parkinson EK, Craft JA, Bartholomew C and Fulton R (2001). Detection of functional PTEN lipid phosphatase protein and enzyme activity in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, despite loss of heterozygosity at this locus. Brit J Cancer  vol. 84, (12) 1630-1634. 10.1054/bjoc.2001.1848
Munro J, Steeghs K, Morrison V, Ireland H and Parkinson EK (2001). Human fibroblast replicative senescence can occur in the absence of extensive cell division and short telomeres. Oncogene  vol. 20, (27) 3541-3552. 10.1038/sj.onc.1204460
Paterson IC, Matthews JB, Huntley S, Robinson CM, Fahey M, Parkinson EK and Prime SS (2001). Decreased expression of TGF-beta cell surface receptors during progression of human oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Pathol  vol. 193, (4) 458-467. 10.1002/1096-9896(2000)9999:9999<::AID-PATH822>3.0.CO;2-V


Owens DW, Brunton VG, Parkinson EK and Frame MC (2000). E-cadherin at the cell periphery is a determinant of keratinocyte differentiation in vitro. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications  vol. 269, (2) 369-376. 10.1006/bbrc.2000.2292
Owens DW, McLean GW, Wyke AW, Paraskeva C, Parkinson EK, Frame MC and Brunton VG (2000). The catalytic activity of the Src family kinases is required to disrupt cadherin-dependent cell-cell contacts. Molecular Biology of The Cell  vol. 11, (1) 51-64. 10.1091/mbc.11.1.51


Agochiya M, Brunton VG, Owens DW, Parkinson EK, Paraskeva C, Keith WN and Frame MC (1999). Increased dosage and amplification of the focal adhesion kinase gene in human cancer cells. Oncogene  vol. 18, (41) 5646-5653. 10.1038/sj.onc.1202957
Munro J, Stott FJ, Vousden KH, Peters G and Parkinson EK (1999). Role of the alternative INK4A proteins in human keratinocyte senescence: Evidence for the specific inactivation of p16(INK4A) upon immortalization. Cancer Research  vol. 59, (11) 2516-2521.
Bryce SD, Forsyth NR, Fitzsimmons SA, Clark LJ, Bertram MJ, Cuthbert AP, Newbold RF, Pereira-Smith OM and Parkinson EK (1999). Genetic and functional analyses exclude mortality factor 4 (MORF4) as a keratinocyte senescence gene. Cancer Research  vol. 59, (9) 2038-2040.
Hurlstone AFL, Reid G, Reeves JR, Fraser J, Strathdee G, Rahilly M, Parkinson EK and Black DM (1999). Analysis of the CAVEOLIN-1 gene at human chromosome 7q31.1 in primary tumours and tumour-derived cell lines. Oncogene  vol. 18, (10) 1881-1890. 10.1038/sj.onc.1202491
Cuthbert AP, Bond J, Trott DA, Gill S, Broni J, Marriott A, Khoudoli G, Parkinson EK, Cooper CS and Newbold RF (1999). Telomerase repressor sequences on chromosome 3 and induction of permanent growth arrest in human breast cancer cells. Journal of The National Cancer Institute  vol. 91, (1) 37-45. 10.1093/jnci/91.1.37
Bertram MJ, Bérubé NG, Hang-Swanson X, Ran Q, Leung JK, Bryce S, Spurgers K, Bick RJ, Baldini A, Ning Y, Clark LJ, Parkinson EK, Barrett JC, Smith JR and Pereira-Smith OM (1999). Identification of a gene that reverses the immortal phenotype of a subset of cells and is a member of a novel family of transcription factor- like genes. Molecular and Cellular Biology  vol. 19, (2) 1479-1485. 10.1128/MCB.19.2.1479
Kipling D, Wynford-Thomas D, Jones CJ, Akbar A, Aspinall R, Bacchetti S, Blasco MA, Broccoli D, DePinho RA, Edwards DR, Effros RB, Harley CB, Lansdorp PM, Linskens MHK, Prowse KR, Newbold RF, Olovnikov AM, Parkinson EK, Pawelec G, Ponten J, Shall S, Zilmans M, Faragher RGA and Rubin H (1999). Telomere-dependent senescence [1] (multiple letters). Nature Biotechnology  vol. 17, (4) 313-314. 10.1038/7827


Zhao JQ, Hoare SF, McFarlane R, Muir S, Parkinson EK, Black DM and Keith WN (1998). Cloning and characterization of human and mouse telomerase RNA gene promoter sequences. Oncogene  vol. 16, (10) 1345-1350. 10.1038/sj.onc.1201892


Soder AI, Hoare SF, Muire S, Balmain A, Parkinson EK and Keith WN (1997). Mapping of the gene for the mouse telomerase RNA component, Terc, to chromosome 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and mouse chromosome painting. Genomics  vol. 41, (2) 293-294. 10.1006/geno.1997.4621
Parkinson EK, Newbold RF and Keith WN (1997). The genetic basis of human keratinocyte immortalisation in squamous cell carcinoma development: The role of telomerase reactivation. European Journal of Cancer Part A  vol. 33, (5) 727-734. 10.1016/S0959-8049(97)00063-4
Soder AI, Hoare SF, Muir S, Going JJ, Parkinson EK and Keith WN (1997). Amplification, increased dosage and in situ expression of the telomerase RNA gene in human cancer. Oncogene  vol. 14, (9) 1013-1021. 10.1038/sj.onc.1201066
Loughran O, Clark LJ, Bond J, Baker A, Berry IJ, Edington KG, Ly IS, Simmons R, Haw R, Black DM, Newbold RF and Parkinson EK (1997). Evidence for the inactivation of multiple replicative lifespan genes in immortal human squamous cell carcinoma keratinocytes. Oncogene  vol. 14, (16) 1955-1964. 10.1038/sj.onc.1201028


Malliri A, Yeudall WA, Nikolic M, Crouch DH, Parkinson EK and Ozanne B (1996). Sensitivity to transforming growth factor beta 1-induced growth arrest is common in human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines: c-MYC down-regulation and p21waf1 induction are important early events. Cell Growth Differ  vol. 7, (10) 1291-1304.
Parkinson EK (1996). Do telomerase antagonists represent a novel anti-cancer strategy? British Journal of Cancer  vol. 73, (1) 1-4. 10.1038/bjc.1996.1
Loughran O, Malliri A, Owens D, Gallimore PH, Stanley MA, Ozanne B, Frame MC and Parkinson EK (1996). Association of CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) with human head and neck keratinocyte replicative senescence: Relationship of dysfunction to immortality and neoplasia. Oncogene  vol. 13, (3) 561-568.
Fahey MS, Paterson IC, Stone A, Collier AJ, Heung YLM, Davies M, Patel V, Parkinson EK and Prime SS (1996). Dysregulation of autocrine TGF-β isoform production and ligand responses in human tumour-derived and Ha-ras-transfected keratinocytes and fibroblasts. British Journal of Cancer  vol. 74, (7) 1074-1080. 10.1038/bjc.1996.492
Loughran O, Malliri A, Owens D, Ozanne B, Frame M and Parkinson EK (1996). Evidence for a role for P16 in replicative senescence and immortality in human keratinocytes. Biochemical Society Transactions  vol. 24, (4) 10.1042/bst024550sa


Edington KG, Loughran OP, Berry IJ and Parkinson EK (1995). Cellular immortality: A late event in the progression of human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck associated with p53 alteration and a high frequency of allele loss. Molecular Carcinogenesis  vol. 13, (4) 254-265. 10.1002/mc.2940130408


Loughran O, Edington KG, Berry IJ, Clark LJ and Parkinson EK (1994). Loss of Heterozygosity of Chromosome 9p21 Is Associated with the Immortal Phenotype of Neoplastic Human Head and Neck Keratinocytes. Cancer Research  vol. 54, (19) 5045-5049.
Berry IJ, Burns JE and Parkinson EK (1994). Assignment of two human epidermal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to more than one complementation group for the immortal phenotype. Molecular Carcinogenesis  vol. 9, (3) 134-142. 10.1002/mc.2940090305
Burns JE, McFarlane R, Clark LJ, Mitchell R, Robertson G, Soutar D and Parkinson EK (1994). Maintenance of identical p53 mutations throughout progression of squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue. European Journal of Cancer. Part B: Oral Oncology  vol. 30, (5) 335-337. 10.1016/0964-1955(94)90035-3
Burns JE, Clark LJ, Yeudall WA, Mitchell R, Mackenzie K, Chang SE and Parkinson EK (1994). The p53 status of cultured human premalignant oral keratinocytes. British Journal of Cancer  vol. 70, (4) 591-595. 10.1038/bjc.1994.356
Stanton P, Richards S, Reeves J, Nikolic M, Edington K, Clark L, Robertson G, Souter D, Mitchell R, Hendler FJ, Cooke T, Parkinson EK and Ozanne BW (1994). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression by human squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, cell lines and xenografts. British Journal of Cancer  vol. 70, (3) 427-433. 10.1038/bjc.1994.322


Parkinson EK, Graham GJ, Daubersies P, Burns JE, Heufler C, Plumb M, Schuler G and Pragnell IB (1993). Hemopoietic stem cell inhibitor (SCI/MIP-1α) also inhibits clonogenic epidermal keratinocyte proliferation. Journal of Investigative Dermatology  vol. 101, (2) 113-117. 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12363603
Burns JE, Baird MC, Clark LJ, Burns PA, Edington K, Chapman C, Mitchell R, Robertson G, Soutar D and Parkinson EK (1993). Gene mutations and increased levels of p53 protein in human squamous cell carcinomas and their cell lines. British Journal of Cancer  vol. 67, (6) 1274-1284. 10.1038/bjc.1993.238
CLARK LJ, MacKENZIE K and PARKINSON EK (1993). Elevated levels of the p53 tumour suppressor protein in the basal layer of recurrent laryngeal papillomas. Clinical Otolaryngology &Amp; Allied Sciences  vol. 18, (1) 63-65. 10.1111/j.1365-2273.1993.tb00812.x
Clark LJ, Edington K, Swan IR, McLay KA, Newlands WJ, Wills LC, Young HA, Johnston PW, Mitchell R, Robertson G, Soutar D, Parkinson EK and Birnie GD (1993). The absence of Harvey ras mutations during development and progression of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. British Journal of Cancer  vol. 68, (3) 617-620. 10.1038/bjc.1993.396


Parkinson EK (1992). Epidermal keratinocyte stem cells: their maintenance and regulation. Seminars in Cell Biology  vol. 3, (6) 435-444. 10.1016/1043-4682(92)90014-M


Appleby MW, Greenfield IM, Crook T, Parkinson EK and Stanley MA (1989). In vivo and in vitro effects of v-fos and EJ-Ha-ras oncogene expression in murine epidermal keratinocytes. Oncogene  vol. 4, (11) 1323-1330.
Parkinson EK (1989). The transformation of human epidermal keratinocytes by carcinogens and viruses in vitro. Carcinogenesis; a Comprehensive Survey  vol. 11, 349-368.


Parkinson EK, Al-Yaman FM and Appleby MW (1987). The effect of donor age on the proliferative response of human and mouse keratinocytes to phorbol, 12-myristate, 13-acetate. Carcinogenesis  vol. 8, (7) 907-912. 10.1093/carcin/8.7.907
Parkinson EK (1987). Phospholipase c mimics the differential effects of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate on the colony formation and cornification of cultured normal and transformed human keratinocytes. Carcinogenesis  vol. 8, (6) 857-860. 10.1093/carcin/8.6.857
Roberts RA, Spooncer E, Parkinson EK, Lord BI, Allen TD and Dexter TM (1987). Metabolically inactive 3T3 cells can substitute for marrow stromal cells to promote the proliferation and development of multipotent haemopoietic stem cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology  vol. 132, (2) 203-214. 10.1002/jcp.1041320204


Parkinson EK, Hume WJ and Potten CS (1986). The radiosensitivity of keratinocytes from tongue and skin; enhanced radioresistance following serial cultivation. British Journal of Cancer  vol. 53, (SUPPL. 7) 81-83.
Parkinson EK, Hume WJ and Potten CS (1986). The radiosensitivity of cultured human and mouse keratinocytes. International Journal of Radiation Biology  vol. 50, (4) 717-726. 10.1080/09553008614551111


Stanley MA, Crowcroft NS, Quigley JP and Parkinson EK (1985). Responses of human cervical keratinocytes in vitro to tumour promoters and diethylstilboestrol. Carcinogenesis  vol. 6, (7) 1011-1015. 10.1093/carcin/6.7.1011
Brown KW and Parkinson EK (1985). Alteration of the extracellular matrix of cultured human keratinocytes by transformation and during differentiation. International Journal of Cancer  vol. 35, (6) 799-807. 10.1002/ijc.2910350617
Brown KW and Parkinson EK (1985). Fibronectin production by cultured keratinocytes. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology  vol. 84, (4) 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12265370
Parkinson EK (1985). Defective responses of transformed keratinocytes to terminal differentiation stimuli. Their role in epidermal tumour promotion by phorbol esters and by deep skin wounding. British Journal of Cancer  vol. 52, (4) 479-493. 10.1038/bjc.1985.219


Parkinson EK, Pera MF, Emmerson A and Gorman PA (1984). Differential effects of complete and second-stage tumour promoters in normal but not transformed human and mouse keratinocytes. Carcinogenesis  vol. 5, (8) 1071-1077. 10.1093/carcin/5.8.1071
Parkinson EK and Emmerson A (1984). Non-promoting hyperplasiogenic agents do not mimic the effects of phorbol, 12-myristate, 13-acetate on terminal differentiation of normal and transformed human keratinocytes. Carcinogenesis  vol. 5, (5) 687-690. 10.1093/carcin/5.5.687
Nigel JL, Parkinson EK and Emmerson A (1984). Benzoyl peroxide interferes with metabolic co-operation between cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. Carcinogenesis  vol. 5, (3) 419-421. 10.1093/carcin/5.3.419
BARNHILL RL, PARKINSON EK and RYAN TJ (1984). Supernatants from cultured human epidermal keratinocytes stimulate angiogenesis. British Journal of Dermatology  vol. 110, (3) 273-281. 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1984.tb04632.x
Proops DW, Hawke WM and Parkinson EK (1984). Tissue culture of migratory skin of the external ear and cholesteatoma: A new research tool. Journal of Otolaryngology  vol. 13, (2) 63-69.
Brown KW and Parkinson EK (1984). Extracellular matrix components produced by SV40‐transformed human epidermal keratinocytes. International Journal of Cancer  vol. 33, (2) 257-263. 10.1002/ijc.2910330215
Potten CS, Hume WJ and Parkinson EK (1984). MIGRATION AND MITOSIS IN THE EPIDERMIS. British Journal of Dermatology  vol. 111, (6) 695-699. 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1984.tb14153.x


Parkinson EK, Grabham P and Emmerson A (1983). A subpopulation of cultured human keratinocytes which is resistant to the induction of terminal differentiation-related changes by phorbol, 12-myristate, 13-acetate: Evidence for an increase in the resistant population following transformation. Carcinogenesis  vol. 4, (7) 857-861. 10.1093/carcin/4.7.857
PROOPS DW and PARKINSON EK (1983). Tissue culture of human cholesteatomatous keratinocytes. Clinical Otolaryngology &Amp; Allied Sciences  vol. 8, (3) 165-170. 10.1111/j.1365-2273.1983.tb01421.x
Brown KW and Parkinson EK (1983). Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans of cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Journal of Cell Science  vol. Vol. 61, 325-338. 10.1242/jcs.61.1.325


Parkinson EK and Emmerson A (1982). The effects of tumour promoters on the multiplication and morphology of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. Carcinogenesis  vol. 3, (5) 525-531. 10.1093/carcin/3.5.525


Paraskeva C and Parkinson EK (1981). Sensitivity of normal and transformed rat liver epithelial cells to benzo[a]pyrene toxicity. Carcinogenesis  vol. 2, (6) 483-487. 10.1093/carcin/2.6.483
Parkinson EK (1981). The effects of phorbol esters and mezerein on growth and differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes. Proceedings of The American Association For Cancer Research  vol. Vol. 22,
Macartney JC and Parkinson EK (1981). The ultrastructure of whole cells from two human keratinocyte strains during cell spreading and island formation in vitro. Experimental Cell Research  vol. 132, (2) 411-421. 10.1016/0014-4827(81)90116-6


Parkinson EK and Newbold RF (1980). Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in serially cultivated strains of human epidermal keratinocytes. International Journal of Cancer  vol. 26, (3) 289-299. 10.1002/ijc.2910260307


Stanley MA and Parkinson EK (1979). Growth requirements of human cervical epithelial cells in culture. International Journal of Cancer  vol. 24, (4) 407-414. 10.1002/ijc.2910240406


Grants of specific relevance to Predictive in vitro Models
Developing a marker for ageing cells: can we identify and reverse age-related disease?
Parkinson K and Parkinson EK
£119,979 Dunhill Medical Trust (01-04-2016 - 31-03-2018)